The inhabitants of the present Dima Hasao district were a Mongoloid stock of groups who started to stay atop hilly terrain and who from the very beginning stick their own culture, tradition and land rights. Records of different British historians and officials North Cachar Hills state that during their imperialist regim the place was occupied by the Kuki tribe, Zeme Naga tribe and Dimasa Cacharise. No doubt that these three tribes are still the predominant tribes, but offshoots of these tribes has came out in the recent years. In the year 1867, this sub-division was abolished and divided into three parts such as Cachar, Khasi and Jaintia Hills district and Nagaon. The present North Cachar Hills district was enclosed in the old Cachar district along with the Asalu as its only police outpost. Then in 1880, this portion was upgraded into a sub-division with its headquarters located at Gunjung under the Cachar district. Again, the headquarters was transferred to the region of Haflong in the year 1895. From that time, the headquarters status of Haflong has continued. In 1951, after the adoption of the Indian constitution, North Cachar Hills ceased to be a part of Cachar district, as specified under paragraph 20 of the sixth schedule to the constitution. Later this part of the territory along with Mikir Hills created a new civil district by name "United district of North Cachar and Mikir Hills", which came into effect on 17th November, 1951. As per a provision of the sixth schedule, two different councils were established after sometime, likewise North Cachar Hills District Council and Mikir Hills District Council within the geographical boundary of then North Cachar Hills District Council, that was inaugurated on 19th April, 1952. The government announced an independent administrative district namely North Cachar Hills District with the geographical boundary of autonomous North Cachar Hills district council on 2nd February 1970. Now a days, this autonomous council have administrative control over almost all the departments of the district excluding law and order, administration and treasury.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°35'N latitude and 93°02'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 513 m.In the year 2019, there was a total 86.07% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,888 sq km. and it is bounded by Karbi Anglong district (E) and Nagaland on the North East, Manipur on the East, Nagaon district on the North, Karbi Anglong District (W) on the North-west, Meghalaya on the West and Cachar district on the South. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Kapili, Dehangi, Diyung, Jatinga, Jenam, Mahur and Langting. The climate of the district is not uniform in the entire Dima Hasao district. Most its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The heaviest rainfall in the district is generally occurs in the Borail range. The actual rainfall in the district was 1560.0 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 sub-districts, 4 towns and 695 villages. The administrative languages in the district are Assamese and English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 2,14,102 including 1,10,802 are males and 1,03,300 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 932 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 967 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth in the district was 13.84% including 11.00% weremales and 17.04% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 67.07% of the total population. The population density in the district is 44 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Dimasa and Bengali with 35.73% and 11.80%.In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 6,444 out of which 3,372 were males and 3,072 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 1,044 out of which 648 were males and 396 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Rice and paddy are the chief agricultural products in the district. In spite of launching some new modern agricultural schemes by the government yet it is counted among the backward districts of Assam. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialized since it has only a few agro based industries. But the district is rich in mineral resources such as lime stone, coal, carbonaceous shale, magnesia, etc. In 2006 the Indian government declared Dima Hasao as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2016-2017 the Gross Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 3,00,901 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 2,35,823 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2007-2008 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 74,138 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 50,874 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2007-2008 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost in the district is Rs. 35,764 at Current Price and Rs. 24,541 at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Haflong Government College, J.B Hagjer College, B. Bodo Junior College, Hills Degree College, J.B Hagjer College, Maibang Degree College, Sengya Sambudhan Junior College, M.C.D Junior College, Don Bosco Higher Secondary School, St. Agnes' Convent Higher Secondary School, Synod Higher Secondary School, Sacred Heart English School, Vivekananda Kendriya Vidyalaya, Don Bosco High School,Trinity English School, Ever Green High School, Maibang High School, Maibangkro High School, Pranabananda Vidya Mandir High School, Sainja Valley High School, St. Xavier's School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 77.54% including 83.29% are males and 71.33% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 1,40,873 out of which 78,559 are males and 62,314 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 73,229 out of which 32,243are males and 40,986 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Jatinga, a small but beautiful village adorned with some magnificent landscapes. Visitors from far off places come to this place in order to enjoy its mysterious migratory birds which generally arrive here in the month of August and September. The place is also popular for its horticultural products like orange. Dream Valley of Umrongso is another place in the district full of mesmerising natural sceneries. Sunset in Umrongso is also creates a marvellous picturesque to watch. Kopili River flows through the place hosts a hot water stream which has some medicinal values. Kopili Tea Estate is also attracts a huge number of tourist from different parts of the country. Panimoor, in the district is renowned for its wonderful waterfall of the Kopili River. The popular Dimasa tribe in the district considers it very sacred. Haflong, often known as the Switzerland of the East is located in the district. The city is naturally bounded by the Barail Hill and for the very reason it is commonly known as the 'Land of Blue Hills'. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Garampani, Mahur, Hajong, Thuruk, Harangajao, Laisong, Maibang and many more.