Ramgarh district, a part of the North Chotanagpur division is a district of Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Ramgarh town. The district got its name from the two words such as Ram and Gadh. The term Ram is derived from Murram and Gadh is taken from Beluagadha. The place is rich in coal fields. The history of the place is started from the very beginning period of the human civilisation in India. Some proves of human in habitation were found in the place of Ramgarh along with bank of the river Damodar in the early stone age. During the period of Maurya Empire, the entire place of Chhotanagpur was under the rule of Ashoka the Great and being a part of the Chhotanagpur, Ramgarh is also a part of the empire of Ashoka. At that time the place was ruled by many potential dynasties likewise Buddhism and Jainism empire, Gupta empire, Nagvanshi empire and many more. At the time of Gupta’s rule, King Samudragupta (c.?385-c.?380 AD) had captured Eastern Deccan by passing through the place of Ramgarh, thus it can be deduced that it was also present at that time. This period can be very well called as the Golden Age of India. In the regime of the king of Mundaraj, Mudra Munda too, Ramgarh was present. This fact is corroborated by the presence of Munda tribe in Ramgarh. In the medieval era, the whole area was under the power of Muslim rulers from Middle East. At last the British came to India and started to rule over the place until India got its independence in the year 1947. Ramgarh as a separate district came into existence in the map of Jharkhand state on 12th September, 2007.
Geographically, the district lies at 23063'N latitude and 85052'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 1049 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 24.53% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,341 sq. km. and it is bounded by Hazaribagh district on the North, Ranchi district on the South and West, Bokaro district on the East. The principal rivers passes through the district are Damodar River. Some important tributaries of the Damodar River which flows in the district are Naikari, Bhervi or Bhera and Bokaro River. The natives of the district experience extreme hot during the summer and fairly cold during the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1142.4 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided 6 blocks namely Ramgarh, Patratu, Gola, Mandu, Chitarpur and Dulmi. Moreover, it comprises 23 towns and 315 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 9,49,443 out of which 4,94,230 are males and 4,55,213 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 921 (females for every 1000 males). The population density in the district is 708 (persons per sq. km.). During the period 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 13.10% including 11.32% were males and 15.10% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 81.55% of the total population. As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi with 82.99%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 12,748 out of which 6,701 were males and 6,047 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 552 out of which 341 were males and 211 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. Since the district has abundant deposits of mineral resources hence its industries are generally based on several minerals like Steel, Sponge Iron, Cement, Refractory and Thermal Power Plant, etc. Some of its most prominent public sector undertaking industries are Patratu Thermal Power Station, Steel authority of India (SAIL), IFCO, Marar Bharat Refractories Ltd. C.C.L., Central Repair Work Shop, etc. There are some other significant private sectors industries are Jindal Steel & Power Limited, Indo-Ashahee Glass Company, Brahmaputra Metallics Ltd, Jharkhand Ispat Private Limited, Aloke Steels Industries Private Limited, Maa Chhinnamastika Cement and Ispat Private Limited, Sri Durga Cement Company Limited, etc. Some of its population are also engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, pulses, vegetables, mango, guava, jackfruit, coriander leaves, etc.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It also provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Ramgarh College, Chota Nagpur College, Ramgarh Women’s College, Ramgarh Inter Women’s College, Radha Govind Teacher Training College and many more. As per 2011 census the district has a literacy rate of 73.17% out of which 82.44% are males and 63.09% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 5,96,497 including 3,50,031 are males and 2,46,466 are females.
Shibu Soren, a veteran Indian politician and the third Chief Minister of Jharkhand state who served from 2008 to 2009 and again from 2009 to 2010 was born on 11th January, 1944 at the Ramgarh town. At present he is the President of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) political party, a constituent of the UPA.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Mahatama Gandhi Samadhi Sathal, popularly known as Gandhi Ghat is located on the bank of the Damodar River in Ramgarh. Once in the year 1940 Gandhiji had visited the place Ramgarh during the period of the Indian National Congress session held at Ramgarh. Therefore after the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi in 1948, the ashes of the departed soul were carried to different places of India and among those places Ramgarh is fortunate enough to be the one. Naikari Dam, constructed on the small rivers like Naikari is situated at a distance of 5 km. from Patratu in the district. This dam is located in a beautiful site full of mesmerising natural sceneries, enclosed by hills, forest and rivers. Rajrappa Mandir, also famous as Maa Chhinnamasta Temple is situated at a place called Rajrappa 28 km. away from Ramgarh Cantonment on the meeting point of the two most important rivers namely Damodar and Bhairav. The name of this temple is also mentioned in the Vedas and Puranas as a strong source of Shakti. Devotees from far off countries come to this temple in order to offer their prayers. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Tooti Jharna Temple, Mayatungri Temple, Kaitha Shiv Mandir, Khere Math, Gurudawara Singh Sabha, China Cemetery, Dhur-duria Fall, Am-Jharia Fall, Nimi Fall, Dhara Fall, Gandhaunia, Chutupallu, Bankhetta, Liril Fall, Barso Paani, Hundru Fall and many more.