Earlier Pune was known as Punyanagari. It is the seventh-most populous city in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra. The district got its name Pune from the term Pu?yanagari means the city of virtue. The oldest reference to this name was found on the Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 C.E., which refers to the city as Punya-Vishayaor. Pune was known as Punawadi during 13th century. The name 'Poona' was probably changed to 'Pune' in 1977. During different periods of time the place was ruled by different rulers likewise Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj and his sons (17th century), Peshwa rule (1714-1818), etc. The rule of the British East India Company was started in the Pune region and the rest of the Peshwa territories in 1818. But in the year 1858 the company rule came to an end under the terms of Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Bombay Presidency, along with Pune and the rest of British India, all these were came under the direct rule of the British crown. Numerous significant constructions had took place during the British rule. The district witnessed some serious involvements of its natives in the national freedom movements against the British. In the period between 1875 and 1910, Pune was a major centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Dr. Cyrus S. Poonawalla is a well known business man and the chairman of Poonawalla Group. He was born in Pune. In 2005 the Government of India honoured him by the great award i.e. Padma Shri Award for his contribution to the field of medicine. Dhanraj Pillay, an eminent Indian hockey player and former captain of the Indian hockey team was born on 16th July, 1968 at Khadki in Pune. In 2000 he was honoured by the Padma Shri Award.
Geographically, the district lies at 18052'N latitude, 73086'E longitude and 560 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 10.94% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies a geographical area of 15,643 sq km. and interms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 2nd in the state and 16th in India. It is bounded by Thane District on the northwest, Raigad District on the west, Satara District on the south, Solapur District on the southeast, and Ahmednagar District on the north and northeast. During summers the natives of the district experience dry and hot climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1134.4 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administrative wise, the Pune district comprises of 5 sub-divisions namely Baramati, Bhor taluka, Pune, Khed and Maval. To administer in a better way the district is divided into 15 talukas or tehsils. Moreover, the district has 4 Lok Sabha Constituencies and18 Assembly constituencies. The district also comprises 14 sub-districts, 35 towns and 1,852 villages. The administrative language in the district is Marathi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 94,29,408 including 49,24,105 are males and 45,05,303 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 915 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate of the district was 30.37% out of which 30.64% were males and 30.08% were females. The population density in the district is 603 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 1,40,195 including 72,829 were males and 67,366 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 55,009 including 31,879 were males and 23,130 were females. As per 2011census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 85.80% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Marathi with 78.17%.
Pune has the seventh largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country. A huge chunk of revenue of the district comes from the IT and manufacturing companies. Pune is home to the Automotive Research Association of India, which is responsible for the homologation of all vehicles available in India. In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,41,44,400 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,98,30,800 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2013-2014 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,54,00,400 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 91,24,100 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. In the year 2013-14 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 1,71,636 at Current Price and Rs. 1,01,687 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
Pune city is also known as Oxford of the East. Pune University is the second largest University of India (based on total number of its affiliated colleges). Symbiosis International University of the district operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city. Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College are among the best medical colleges of the district. As per 2011 census the literacy rate of the district is 86.15% including 90.84% are males and 81.05% are females.
Bal Keshav Thackeray, a veteran Indian politician and the founder of the Shiv Sena was born on 23rd January, 1926 in Pune, Bombay Presidency of British India. On 19th June, 1966 he formed the Shiv Sena with the intent of fighting for the rights of the natives of the Maharashtra. Sharad Govindrao Pawar, a distinguished Indian politician and the founder of the Nationalist Congress Party was born on 12th December, 1940 in Pune. After separating from the Indian National Congress, he founded the Nationalist Congress Party in 1999. Earlier, he served as the Chief Minister of Maharashtra on three separate occasions.
The centres of attraction of the district allure numerous travellers from different parts of the world. Shaniwar Wada was the palace of the Peshwa (Prime Minister of Chhatrapati) in Pune. It was built by the Peshwa Bajirao-I in 1732. But the palace was destroyed in a big fire in 1827. Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum is located at the Bajirao Road in the heart of Pune city. It displays a variety of rare things and showcases many items collected by Dr. Dinkar. G. Kelkar. Saras Baug was constructed by Nanasaheb Peshwa in the 18th century. It is located against the scenic background of Parvati Hills. Parvati Hill represents the natural beauty of the Pune city. Parvati Hill Temple, built during the 17th century is the identity of this place. Vishrambaag Wada, a fine mansion located at Thorale Bajirao Road, was the luxurious residence of Peshwa Bajirao II, in the early nineteenth century. Bund Garden now renamed as Mahatma Gandhi Udyan, is a place full of beautiful sceneries. It is located on the banks of the river Mula-Mutha. The Bund Garden was constructed by Sir Jamshedji. Sinhgad Fort is located roughly 30 kms southwest of the Pune city. Earlier the fort is called as Kondhana.