Mathura district, a part of Agra division is a district of Uttar Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Mathura town. Many ancient interesting stories were associated with the district. According to the great epic Ramayana at the ancient period there was a demon called Lavanasura, who ruled this place. But the Ikshwaku, Prince Shatrughna killed the demon and occupied the land. Earlier the place was popularly known as Madhuvan since at that time the place was covered with thick forests and woods. Later its name was changed to Madhupura then Mathura, the present name. Mathura is the celebrated birthplace of Lord Krishna. It is one of the seven holy cities of Hindus. The Keshav Dev Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's birthplace which was an underground prison. During the period of Lord Krishna, Mathura was the capital of the Surasena Kingdom, ruled by Kansa, the maternal uncle of Krishna. Apart from the mythological history of the district, the place of Mathura was the capital of the Surasena mahajanapada in the 6th century BCE. After sometime the place was controlled by the Maurya empire for a long period i.e. from 4th to 2nd centuries BCE, followed by the Shunga dynasty in the 2nd century BCE. Then the region was went into the hands of Indo-Greeks for some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE. Later during the 1st century BCE it reverted to local rule before it was conquered by the Indo-Scythians. Therefore, the place of Mathura was ruled by different dynasties during different period of time.
Geographically, the district lies at 27049'N latitude, 77067'E longitude and 174 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 1.71% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,340 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 35th in the state and 361st in India. It is bounded by Aligarh district on the north east, Mahamaya Nagar district on the south east, Agra district on the south, Haryana state on the north west and Rajasthan state on the west. The prominent river that flows through the district are Yamuna. The climate of the district is characterised as the tropical climate. Natives of the district experience extreme hot during the summer. The actual rainfall in the district was 807.2 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 tehsils namely Chhata, Mahavan, Mat and Mathura. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 4 sub-districts, 25 towns and 874 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 25,47,184 out of which 13,67,125 are males and 11,80,059 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 863 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 22.78% including 21.25% were males and 24.61% were females. The population density in the district is 763 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 54,182 including 28,276 were males and 25,906 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 8,327 including 4,630 were males and 3,697 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 90.72% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 98.39%.
The oil refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation in Mathura is one of the biggest oil refineries of Asia. Textile printing industry of Mathura is very famous that includes sari-printing, fabric dyeing and silver ornaments manufacturing. Since the district is the centre of milk production hence it is well known as the place where rivers of milk flow. Agriculture also plays a significant role as a contributor of its economy. Some of its chief agricultural products are rice, wheat, pulses, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products. Mathura is one of the most notable destinations of religious tourism. The popularity of the district as a religious tourist spot is increasing day by day which helps in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product of the district was Rs. 17,71,378 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 13,84,342 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2017-18 was Rs. 16,59,562 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 12,25,759 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the year 2017-18 was Rs. 58,251 at Current Price and Rs. 43,025 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district provides a platform for higher education. Some of its reputed educational institutions are BSA College of Engineering and Technology, Hindustan College of Science and Technology, Sachdeva Institute of Technology, GLA Institute of Technology and Management, Brij Bihari Degree College, K.R. Degree College, K.R. Girls Degree College, R.C.A. Girls Degree College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 70.36% including 81.97% are males and 56.89% are females.
Sardar Singh Agre, a distinguished Indian politician and a former MLA from Gokul Assembly constituency from 1980 to 1995 and 1996 to 2002 was born on 1th January, 1949 at Karab in the district. During the period of 1990-91 he was served as the Minister of Religious Affairs, Culture and Sports in the Mulayam Singh Government.
During the year 2018, there were 76,60,300 domestic tourists and 27,910 foreign tourists who visited these places of the district. Every year many travellers from across the country as well as world come to this district to enjoy its temples of historical and religious importance. Shri Krishna Janmbhoomi, a temple located in centre of the Mathura city. Natives of the district believe that the temple exactly stands on the place where Lord Krishna was born. Dwarkadish Temple, situated on the bank of Yamuna River was built in the year 1814. The architecture of the temple is very attractive. The original Jugal Kishor Temple was built in the 17th century but when Emperor Akbar visited the Vridaban in 1570, he ordered three other temples namely Madana-mohana, Govindaji and Gopinatha to be built by the Gaudya Vaisnavas. Some other prominent places of interest are Gita Mandir, Rangaji Temple, Radharaman Temple, Prem Mandir, Jaipur Temple, Shahji Temple, etc.