Mahbubnagar district is a district of Telangana state with its headquarters located at Mahbubnagar city. Earlier, the district was known as Palamoor. Prior to Palamoor, it was popularly called as Rukmammapet. The Mahabubnagar region was also famous as Cholawadi or ‘the land of the Cholas’. Natives of the district believe that the precious Golconda diamonds and Kohinoor diamond came from Mahabubnagar district. In the honour of Mir Mahbub Ali Khan Asaf Jah VI, the Nizam of Hyderabad (1869-1911 AD) the district was named after him as Mahbubnagar on 4th December, 1890. During the period of Nizam, since the people of this place used to sell milk, hence it was often called as "Palamoor'. The district has held historical importance and at different points of time the district was ruled by many notable dynasties likewise Asoka’s Empire (in 250 BC), Satavahana dynasty (221BC-218 AD), Chalukyan dynasty (between 5th and 11th century AD), Rashtrakutas dynasty (in 9th century), Kakatiya dynasty (1100-1474 AD), Bahamanis dynasty (1347-1518), Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518-1687), Mughal rule, etc. From 1724 to 1948 the place was a part of Hyderabad State under the Asaf Jahi dynasty. In the ancient era Buddhist occupied Mahbubnagar as their centre but most of its historic temples were destroyed by the Asaf Jahi rulers. Mahbubnagar district became independent and joined the India on 18th September 1948. At present it is a part of the Red Corridor.
Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, the first elected Chief Minister of the Hyderabad State and one of the leaders who fought against the Nizam in the princely State was born on 13the March, 1899 at Padakallu village in Kalwakurthy of the district. He was also served as the Governor of Kerala (22nd November 1956-1st July, 1960) as well as the Governor of Uttar Pradesh (1st July, 1960-15th April, 1962).
Geographically, the district lies at 16°74'N latitude, 77°99'E longitude and 498 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 12.48% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 18,432 sq km. and it is bounded by Ranga Reddy district and Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh on the north, Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh on the south, Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh on the east and Gulbarga district and Raichur district of Karnataka on the west. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Krishna and Tungabhadra. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 710.1 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 revenue divisions and 2 Lok Sabha seats. Moreover, the district comprises 14 Assembly constituencies which include Kodangal, Narayanpet, Mahbubnagar, Jadcherla, Devarkadra, Makthal, Wanaparthy, Gadwal, Alampur, Nagarkurnool, Achampet, Kalwakurthy, Shadnagar and Kollapur. It has 64 sub-districts, 18 towns and 1,537 villages. The administrative headquarters of the district is located at Mahabubnagar city. The administrative language in the district is Telugu.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 40,53,028 out of which 20,50,386 are males and 20,02,642 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 977 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 15.34% including 15.04% were males and 15.65% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 90.63% of the total population. The population density in the district is 220 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Telugu with 82.58%. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 18,855 including 9,814 were males and 9,041 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,343 including 2,488 were males and 1,855 were females.
The economy of the district is basically based on agriculture. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, jowar, ragi, vegetables, pulse, millets, groundnut, castor, sugarcane, mango, lime, guava, sapota, papaya, orange, etc. The region is also rich in mineral resources like stone metal, lime stone, granite, feldspar, quartz and laterite. In 2006 the Government of India declared Mahbubnagar as one of the country's 250 Most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 21,38,000 lakh at current price and Rs. 15,70,900 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2015-16 was Rs. 13,27,612 lakh at current price and Rs. 10,46,029 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 1,94,229 at current price and Rs. 1,41,070 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Osmania University and Palamuru University are the two most renowned universities in the district. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to these two universities. Some of the reputed educational institutions of the district are Adarsh Degree and PG College, Sri Nagoji Rao Institute Of Technology & Science, Jaya Prakash Narayana Engineering College, Sree Visveswaraya Institute of Technology & Science, Sri Vasavi Degree College and Sri Bhramarambika Mallikarjuna Swamy College of Education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 55.04% including 65.21% are males and 44.72% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 19,40,646 including 11,58,386 are males and 7,82,260 are females.
Ravula Chandra Shekar Reddy, an eminent politician and a member of the Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh (1984-2014) in which he represented Wanaparthy constituency was born on 22nd May, 1948 at Kanaipally village in the district. He also served as a Member of Parliament of the Rajya Sabha from Mahabubnagar. He is a member of Telugu Desam Party. Sudini Jaipal Reddy, a member of the 15th Lok Sabha and the Minister of Science and Technology (29th October, 2012-18th May, 2014) was born on 16th January, 1942 at Madgul in the district. He also served as a Union Minister for Information and Broadcasting in IK Gujral cabinet in 1998. He is a member of the Indian National Congress.
Every year numerous travellers from across the country come to this place to enjoy its ancient temples, historical structures and some of its other centres of attraction. Pillalamrri, an extraordinary 700 years old banyan tree which is located about 4 km. from the town. There is also a tomb of Muslim saint under the tree. In Telugu, "Pillalu" means children and "marri" means a banyan tree. The place consists of an aquarium, a small zoo and an archaeological museum. Mallelatheertham is a wonderful waterfall in the Nallamala forest and a place full of mesmerising natural sceneries. It is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. Umamaheswaram is a place situated at a distance of 150 km. from Hyderabad, has a temple of 2nd century named Umamaheswaram temple, located on very tall hills of Nallamala forests. Pilgrims from far distance place come to this place to offer their prayers. Some other tourist spots in the district are Agasthyeswara Swamy temple at Jetprole, Sri Ranganayakaswamy temple at Sri Rangapur, Somasila, Madhava Swamy temple at Kollapur, Chennakeshwaralayam temple, Wanaparthi, etc.