Firozpur district is a district of Punjab state with its administrative headquarters located at Firozpur city. The district got its name from its headquarters city i.e. Firozpur. Earlier, Firozpur district was a part of the Mamdot estate. The capital city, Firozpur was founded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq and hence the city is named after him. In 1838 an important war was fought, the first Anglo-Afghan war in which the British East India Company ordered their troops to march from Firozpur to Kabul. Another vital war i.e. Anglo-Sikh War was fought after seven years. At that time the region was changed into a prominent battleground of the Khalsa army and the British. From the very beginning period the place Firozpur district has remained as a border area, earlier between the Sikhs and the British and at present between India and Pakistan. The Barki Memorial in the Firozpur city was build in the year 1969 to preserve the memory of the soldiers of the 7 Infantry Division who lost their lives in the battle in 1965 and paved the way for the fall of a town named Barki, situated at a distance of 15 miles south-east of Lahore.
Susham Bedi, one of the leading Indian authors of novels, short stories and poetry was born on 1st July, 1945 at Firozpur city. At present, she is living in the United States. In the year 2006 the Sahitya Academy in Delhi honoured her by the most prestigious Sahitya Academy Award for her contributions to Hindi literature.
Geographically, the district lies at 30°92'N latitude, 74°62'E longitude and 182 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.63% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 5,305 sq km. and it is bounded by Amritsar district on the North, Fazilka district of Punjab and Sri Ganganagar district of Rajasthan on South, Moga district, Faridkot district and Muktsar district on the East and Pakistan on the West. The climate of the district remains dry throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 281.1 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 tehsils namely Firozpur, Zira and Guru Har Sahai. It has 3 sub-tehsils as well such as Makhu, Talwandi Bhai and Mamdot. Moreover, the district comprises 5 sub-districts, 13 towns and 955 villages. The administrative language in the district is Punjabi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 20,29,074 out of which 10,71,637 are males and 9,57,437 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 893 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 16.21% including 15.70% were males and 16.78% were females. The population density in the district is 382 persons per sq. km. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 10,829 including 5,648 were males and 5,181 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,560 including 2,654 were males and 1,906 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Sikh and Hindu with 53.76% and 44.67% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Punjabi and Hindi with 80.51% and 18.75%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, millet, barley, gram, pulses, oil seeds, cotton, tobacco, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Industrially, also the district is well developed. Some of its principal industries are Dev Raj Hi-Tech Mills, Matharu, Indian Foundry Works, Zira Co-operative Sugar Mill, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries helps in its economy to a great extent. In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 15,81,373 lakh at current price and Rs. 12,04,511 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2017-18 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 14,41,207 lakh at current price and Rs. 10,86,982 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the year 2017-18 was Rs. 1,30,308 at current price and Rs. 98,280 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher educational institutions. Some of its recognised educational institutions are R. S. D. College, DIET College, Dev Samaj College of Education for Women, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology, Government Polytechnic College, D. A. V. Women’s College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 68.92% including 75.44% are males and 61.69% are females.
Zora Singh Maan, a distinguished Indian politician and a member of the 14th Lok Sabha from the Firozpur constituency of Punjab was born on 18th June, 1940 at Firozpur city. He was a member of the Shiromani Akali Dal (political party).
During the year 2018, there were 1,00,298 domestic tourists and 114 foreign tourists who visited the district. The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. In the year 1969 the Barki Memorial was created in the district in the memory of the soldiers of the 7 Infantry Division who fought very bravely and sacrifice their lives on the battle ground in 1965. The National Martyrs Memorial, situated at Hussainiwala in the district is devoted to the three great revolutionaries and freedom fighters namely Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev. The Chak Sarkar Forest situated close to the Forest Division of Firozpur covers a compact region of natural forests. The Saragarhi Memorial Gurudwara was constructed in the district by the Army Authorities in order to honour the 21 Sikh soldiers from the 36th Sikh Regiment who were died while defending the Saragarhi Fort on 12th September, 1897 in Wazirstan. Baba Ram Lal Gurudwara, situated at the Malwal road in the Firozpur city is dedicated to the Saint Baba Ram Lal Ji. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Pothimala Building, Jain Swetambara temple, Hazrat Sher Shah Wali Dargah, Anglo Sikh War Memorial, Gurudwara Shri Jamni Sahib, Shan-e-Hind, etc.