Historically, the North District is the largest district of the state Sikkim. Mangan is the headquarter of the district. It has seventh place in least population in India. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Lachung and Lachen.
Kunzang Bhutia, a very famous goalkeeper of the football team for Shillong Lajong in the I-League was born in the district.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 4,226 sq. Km. area and occupies the rank 1st State and 283rd in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 27082' N latitude, 88056' E longitude and 610 m altitude. It is the largest district of Sikkim. In the year of 2019, there was total 30.38% forest area of total geographical area. It is surrounded by People's Republic of China, Nepal, West Sikkim, South Sikkim and East Sikkim. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 3917.1 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-districts, 1 town and 55 villages. Nepali is its official language. It has administrative headquarters at Mangan which is situated at a distance of 54 kms from the State Capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 8,903 households with a total population of 43,709 comprising 24,730 are males and 18,979 are females which causing it to rank 4th in the state and 634th in India. The density of population of the district is 10 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 767 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 929 (females per 1000 males). The population growth rate in the district during the period 2001-2011 was 6.53% out of which 5.62% were males and 7.74% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Buddhist and Hindu with 53.35% and 34.05% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Lepcha and Nepali with 31.71% and 23.24%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 158 out of which 89 were males and 68 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 147 out of which 87 were males and 54 were females.
The district is mainly dependent on the agricultural sector. It is the only district of Sikkim which at present receives funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). A larger variety of Cardamom is produced in the Mangan. It is popularly known as the Cardamom Capital of the world. The steep gradient and the innumerable lakes are the sources of many hydro electric power projects here. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 14,445 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 10,231 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 12,429 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,820 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 27,628 at Current Price and Rs. 450 at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 78.01% out of which 83.3% are males and 70.97% are females. The total literate population of the district was 3,86,351 including 2,35,279 are males and 1,51,072 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 13,259 out of which 6,151 are males and 7,108 are females. Government College, Damber Singh Degree College, Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Pakim Paletine College, Sikim Govt.Law College, Sikkim Govt. Law College, Eklavya Model Residential School, Government Junior Secondary School, Government Secondary School and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya are some of the most reputed educational institutions in the district.
Hishey Lachungpa belongs to Sikkim Democratic Front party. Presently, he is serving as the Member of the Rajya Sabha i.e. from Feb, 2012 to Feb, 2018.
The district has many famous and beautiful tourist places which are not only famous within the country but also in the world. Some of its notable places of interest in the district are Mangan, Chungthang, Dzongu, Lachung, Singhik, Lachen, Phodong, Kabi, Gurudongmar, Yumthang. Every year, a huge number of tourists from worldwide visit the place in order to enjoy its mesmerizing natural sceneries. The region offers magnificent views of the mountain ranges of the Khangchendzonga and Mt. Siniolochu; travels through the greenery overlooking the snow laden mountain and the mystical Guru Dongmar Lake are amazingly provides a heavenly experience to its visitors. Tourists need permit to visit most of the areas of the district since it is located near to the sensitive border of the China. Phensang Monastery, a prominent monastery constructed on a hill slope that extends from Kabi Lungchok to Phodong in the year 1721 belongs to the Nyingma-pa sect. Phodong Monastery, located 38 km. away from Gangtok is one among the six important Buddhist monasteries in Sikkim built by Chogyal Gyurmed Namgyal in the 18th century. Seven Sister Falls, situated at a distance of 32 km. from Gangtok along the National Highway leading to North Sikkim is a picturesque waterfall awaits the visitor with a watching shed.