Ahmednagar district, the largest district of Maharashtra state is a part of Nashik Division with its administrative headquarters located at the historical city Ahmednagar. The district is popularly called as the towns of Shirdi since it is associated with Saint Sai Baba. It is named after Ahmed Shah Nizam Shah, the founder of the Ahmednagar town. Though the district was formed in 1818 but the modern history of Ahmadnagar was started from 1869, at that time Nasik and Sholapur was the part of the Ahmednagar, later Nasik and Solapur were separated which led to the creation of the current Ahmednagar district. After the defeat of the Maratha Confederacy in 1818, in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the district was formed. On the other hand, the town of Ahmednagar was established in 1490 by Ahmad Nizam Shah I on the same site where the ancient city, Bhingar was stand. Earlier, there was the Bahmani Sultanate in the place but later Ahmad established a new sultanate in this region and named it as Ahmednagar, also popularly known as Nizam Shahi dynasty. Before India got its independence the district of Ahmednagar was a part of the Central division of Bombay Presidency. It was became the part of the new state of Maharashtra in 1960.
Kisan Baburao Hazare popularly known as Anna Hazare, an eminent Indian social activist who led various movements to promote rural development, increase government transparency and investigate and punish corruption in public life was born on 15th June, 1937 at Bhingar in the district. He is a great follower of the Gandhian ideologies. He is also honoured by some notable awards namely the Padma Shri in 1990 and Padma Bhushan in 1992.
Geographically, the district lies at 19°10'N latitude, 74°75'E longitude and 650 m altitude.In the year 2021, there was a total 1.64% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 17,048 sq km.and in terms of geographical area it occupies the rank of 1st in the state and 12th in India. It is bounded by Nashik and Aurangabad district on the north, Solapur and Pune district on the south, Beed and Osmanabad district on the east and Thane and Pune district on the west.The district experiences primarily hot and dry climate through November to mid June. The actual rainfall in the district was 806.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 14 tehsils. The district has 2 Lok Sabha constituencies-Ahmednagar and Shirdi. There are 13 Assembly seats in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 14 sub-districts, 19 towns and 1,581 villages. The administrative language in the district is Marathi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 45,43,159 including 23,42,825 are males and 22,00,334 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 939 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 12.44% out of which 12.47% were males and 12.4% were females. The population density in the district is 266 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 81,435 out of which 43,226 were males and 38,209 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 26,386 out of which 15,953 were males and 10,433 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 90.40% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Marathi with 88.89%.
The economy of the district is mainly based on agriculture. The chief agricultural crops in the district are sugarcane, bajra, jawar and wheat. The district has also some industries includes Ayurvedic medicines, manufacturing mopeds, T.V. sets, sugar factory, etc which to some extent contributes in its economy. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj announced the district as one of the country's 250 most backward districts. It is one of the twelve districts in Maharashtra which is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 94,67,700 lakhs at current price and Rs. 64,60,400 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 85,40,000 lakh at current price and Rs. 57,86,300 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 1,75,111 at current price and Rs. 1,18,648 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district has provides a platform for high education. There are 2 reputed universities in the district namely Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth and Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences. Most of the agricultural and medical institutes in the district are affiliated to these two universities. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 79.05% including 86.82% are males and 70.89% are females.
Rajeev Appasaheb Rajale popularly known as "Rajababu”, a prominent Indian politician and the Member of Maharashtra Legislative Assembly from 2004-2009 in which he represents 231 Pathardi Shevgaon constituency was born on 5th December, 1969 at the village of Kasar Pimpalgaon in the district. He is a member of the Indian National Congress party.
The historical structures and ancient temples in the district allure numerous travellers from all over the world. Chand Bibi Palace in real is the tomb of Salabat Khan, is a three-storey stone structure located on the crest of a hill 13 km. from the city. Meherabad in the district is named after the spiritual master Meher Baba whose samadhi is there. Ahmednagar Fort was built in 1490 by Ahmed Nizam Shah, is one of the most admired-designed and most impregnable forts in India. The fort is the identity of the district. Shirdi, a small place blessed by the great Saint Sai Baba. There is a temple of Sai Baba in the place and the door of the temple is open for all. Other distinguished religious places in the district are Renuka Durga temple, Dongargan old temple of Lord Shiva, Gorakshanath Maharaj temple, Dargah Daira, Datta Dewasthan, Siddhatek Siddhivinayak, Burhannagar Devi Temple, etc.