Coimbatore, a district of Tamil Nadu state is situated in its western part called Kongu Nadu region and the administrative headquarters of the district is located at Coimbatore city. The district is popularly known as “The Manchester of South India”. During different periods of time the district was ruled by different dynasties such as Chera dynasty, Chola dynasty, Vijayanagara Empire and Nayaks (Madurai rulers). At the very beginning the nearby regions of Coimbatore was under the rule of Sangam Cheras dyansty and it was very significant as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the main trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. Then a huge part of Tamil Nadu went under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. In the 1550s, Madurai Nayaks, the military governors of the Vijaynagara Empire captured the region. After the downfall of the Vijayanagara Empire in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an independent kingdom. In the year 1865 it was emerged as a separate district in the map of Tamil Nadu. The period between the years 1975 and 1979 some sub-taluks were promoted to taluks, namely Satyamangalam, Perundurai and Mettupalayam. At that time the Coimbatore district comprised 12 taluks. In 1979 the six talukas of the district namely Bhavani, Gopichettipalaiyam, Satyamangalam, Erode, Perundurai and Dharapuram were separated to form the Erode district. On the other hand the remaining six taluks was later become increased to nine and an additional new district named Tirupur district was bifurcated and established in 2012.
The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Sangam Cheras dyansty and it served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the principal trade route between the west coast and Tamil Nadu. The Kosar tribe mentioned in the second century CE Tamil epic Silappathikaram and other poems in Sangam literature is associated with the Coimbatore region (Kongu Nadu). The region was in the middle of a Roman trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu. The medieval Cholas conquered the Kongu Nadu in the 10th century CE. A Chola highway called Rajakesari Peruvazhi ran through the region. Much of Tamil Nadu came under the rule of the Vijayanagara Empire by the 15th century. In the 1550s, Madurai Nayaks who were the military governors of the Vijaynagara Empire took control of the region. After the Vijayanagara Empire fell in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an independent kingdom. The Nayaks introduced the Palayakkarar system under which Kongu nadu region was divided into 24 Palayams.
Kumar Ram Narain Karthikeyan, an eminent car racer and the first Formula One motor racing driver in India was born on 14th January, 1977 in Coimbatore district. In 2013, he raced in the Auto GP series and in which he secured 5 wins and 4 pole positions with Super Nova Racing. G.D. Naidu or Gopalaswamy Doraiswamy Naidu, an illustrious Indian inventor and engineer was born on 23rd March, 1893 at Kalangal village in the Coimbatore district. He is still famous as the Edison of India. He is the one who manufactured the first electric motor in India.
Geographically, the district lies at 11°02'N latitude, 76°96'E longitude and 380 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 41.95% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,732 sq. km. and it is bounded by Palghat district of Kerala on the west, Idukki district of Kerala on the south, Tirupur on the east and Nilgiris on the north. The climate of the district remains pleasant and salubrious throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs during the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2010.7 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 10 talukas namely Annur, Coimbatore North taluk, Coimbatore South taluk, Kinathukkadavu, Madukkarai, Mettupalayam, Perur, Pollachi, Sulur and Valparai. There are 2 revenue divisions including Coimbatore and Pollachi in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 69 towns and 237 villages. The administrative language in the district is Tamil.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 34,58,045 out of which 17,29,297 are males and 17,28,748 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1000 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 35.13% including 32.98% were males and 37.34% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 88.03% of the total population. The population density in the district is 731 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Tamil and Telegu with 69.13% and 16.32%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 45,588 out of which 23,371 were males and 22,217 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 39,959 out of which 24,727 were males and 15,232 were females.
The economy of the district is mostly dependent on agriculture. Some of its chief agricultural products are rice, sugarcane, gingelly, cotton, coconut, betel, tea and spices. Coimbatore is a textile hub too. Besides textile mills, it has also some other industries such as manufacturing of electric pumps, auto components, wet grinders, etc. Slowly and gradually the district is developing as a centre of information and technology. In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 39,53,569 lakhs at current price and Rs. 26,01,933 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 1,04,38,290 lakh at current price and Rs. 81,51,380 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 1,89,937 at current price and Rs. 1,53,890 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Coimbatore provides a platform for higher education. It has three reputed public universities namely Anna University, Bharathiar University and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. It is also an abode to numerous renowned research institutes likewise Central Institute for Cotton Research, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Institute for Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education and Tamil Nadu Institute of Urban Studies. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 83.98% out of which 89.06% are males and 78.92% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 26,35,907 including 13,94,790 are males and 12,41,117 are females.
S. Damodaran, a prominent Indian politician and current council of minister in the Tamil Nadu government with the portfolio of agriculture was born on 18th September, 1952 at Pollachi in the district. Earlier, he was elected as a member to the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly from Kinathukadavu constituency in 2001 and 2006. He is a member of Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam political party.
The district has a great variety of centre of attraction which allures many travellers from across of the world. Valparai, a place located at a distance of 65 km. from Pollachi is famous for its greenery and tea plantations. It is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. Aanaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary is situated 90 km. away from Coimbatore and it has a wide range of rare fauna and flora. Top Slip is a spot full of beautiful natural sceneries located at an altitude of about 800 feet in the Aanaimalai mountain range. The Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is a well known reservoir of serene greenery located between the Anaimalai Hills range of Tamil Nadu and the Nelliampathi Hills range of Kerala. Some notable temples in the district are Perur Pateeswarar temple, Marudamalai Murugan temple, Konniamman temple, Thandu Mariamman temple, Panchamuga Anjaneya temple, Ramalinga Sowdeshwari Amman temple, etc.