Udham Singh Nagar district was carved out of Nainital district in 30th September, 1995 and was named after Saheed Udham Singh, a great freedom fighter, who killed General Dyer to avenge for the Jalianwala Bagh massacre. The district is also known as ‘Gateway to Kumaon hills’. Before the Tarai belt was separated to form the present Udham Singh Nagar on 30/09/1995, Udham Singh Nagar was a part of the Nainital district. Earlier this land which is full of forest and neglected till 1948 due to the unpleasant climate. As per historians, hundreds of years ago the place of Rudrapur was established by a devotee of lord Rudra or by Hindu tribal chief called Rudra, which has moved through different phases of development to take the shape of present city, Rudrapur. The significance of Rudrapur has increased and declared it as the head quarter of the Udham Singh Nagar district. During the rule of great Mughal emperor, Akbar this land was handed over to a king named, Rudra Chandra in the year 1588. Later the king established a permanent military camp to free tarai from day today invasions. After that the totally neglected Rudrapur was changed into a place with new colours and innovative human activities. It is believe that Rudrapur was named after king Rudra Chandra. During the reigns of Britishers, Nainital was made a district and in 1864-65 the whole Tarai and Bhawar was put under “Tarai and Bhawar Government Act” which was governed directly by the British crown.
The geographical area of the district is 2,542 sq. km. Geographically, the district lies at 28°96'N latitude, 79°52'E longitude and 1645 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 16.99% forest area of total geographical area. The district is bounded by Nainital and Champawat districts of Uttarakhand on the north; Moradabad, Rampur, Bareilly and Philibhit districts of Uttar Pradesh on the south; Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh on the west and Nepal on the east. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1195.3 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Udham Singh Nagar district is divided into 7 sub-districts, 19 towns and 688 villages. Rudrapur is the district headquarter of Udham Singh Nagar. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to the national census 2011, Udham Singh Nagar district has a total population of 1,648,902 with 790,119 are females and 858,783 are males. The urban population is 35.58% and 64.42 % of the population is rural. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 66.98% and 22.58% of the total population. During the year 2001-2011, the population growth rate in the district was 33.45% including 32.23% were males and 34.80% were females. The population density in the district is 649 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Punjabi with 72.18% and 10.09%. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 42,873 including 21,113 were males and 21,760 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 7,431 including 4,812 were males and 2,619 were females.
Udham Singh Nagar district is popular as the land of agriculture and industries and widely known as the district of industries. G. B. Pant University producing technical experts and agricultural scientists confirms the value and standard of technology and agriculture in this district. Large automobile industries such as TATA motor, Bajaj, Ashok Leyland, Mahindra and Mahindra have their units in Udham Singh Nagar district. Automobile parts or vehicles, paper and paper products, sugar, rice, electrical items, food product based industries and packaging materials are the major manufacturing industries prominently running in Udham Singh Nagar district. This district is famous for its agriculture and irrigation and is the food bowl of Uttarakhand State. It is also lovingly called as ‘Chawal ki Nagari’ for its popular paddy around India. Potential areas for economic industries are AC and IT related fields, electrical sector, hotel, restaurant, human resource suppliers and tool rooms can flourish. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 37,59,811 lakh at current price and Rs. 32,07,441 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 12,00,847 lakh at current price and Rs. 9,90,342 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 1,87,313 at current price and Rs. 1,59,255 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Pantnagar university is a leading temple of learning in the fields of agriculture and technology with one of the finest built university all around the world. The first university to merge technology with agriculture, G.B. Pant University in Udham Singh Nagar is renowned all over the world. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 73.1% including 81.09% are males and 64.45% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 10,37,839 out of which 5,98,525 are males and 4,39,314 are females.
Udhamsingh Nagar district has nine assembly constituencies, namely Jaspur, Kashipur, Bajpur, Gadarpur, Rudrapur, Kichha, Sitarganj, Nanak Matta, and Khatima. This district has one parliamentary constituency, i.e., Nainital-Udhamsingh Nagar (which comprises two districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar and Nainital). Bhagat Singh Koshyari, born 17th June, 1942, is an Indian politician and a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party from Uttarakhand. He served as National Vice President of BJP and party's 1st State president for Uttarakhand. Currently, he is serving as MP from Nainital-Udhamsingh Nagar constituency.
The district is an abode of holy shrines and breathtaking sceneries. Nanak Mata is an important holy shrine of Sikh religion. People from Sikh religion believe that, the great sage of Sikh religion, Guru Nanak had visited Nanak Mata. It is 56 km. from Rudrapur city on the route to Tanakpur. Nanak sagar is a beautiful lake nearby Nanak mata. Nanak sagar is usually occupied with picnickers. The facilities of boating and fishing in Nanak sagar attracts more tourists to its premises. Gurudwara Nankana Sahib devoted to Guru Nanak is situated in Kashipur town of Udham Singh Nagar district on Ramnagar-Manpur bypass road. It is believed that Guru Nanak visited this place after visiting Nanak Mata and Nanak puri. Locals of the place were about to flee because of the havoc caused by Dhela river. Guru Nanak confronted the people to stay at the place and started kirtan. River rose, came up to the feet of Guru Nanak and went back-thus the settlement was established at the place. Since then the city has never been flooded. Rudrapur city is the district headquarter Rudrapur is named after the King Rudra Chandra who is said to be a devotee of lord Shiva. Once King Rudra happened to pass through the marshy land in the area and his chariot got stock there. The king built a temple and dug a well at the place. The famous Atariya is the same temple established by King Rudra 2 km. away from Rudrapur city. Chaiti Devi temple, on Kashipur-Bajpur route, is one of the most visited temple in the area devoted to goddess Durga. Every year during Navaratra, a fair is held in Chaiti Devi temple and hundreds of devotees participate in the ceremony to pay homage to goddess Durga. Giri Sarovar is the mesmerizing lake that attracts groups of picnickers every year. It is widely known for its beauty and charm.