Fatehabad District is one of the twenty one districts of Haryana. In 14th century the Fatehabad town was founded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Therefore, he named the town Fatehabad after the name of his son Fateh Khan. At different periods of time the district was ruled by different dynasties-Ashoka dynasty, Maurya Dynasty, Sunga dynasty, Prithvi Raj, Mughal dynasty, etc. At the very beginning, Aryans started to settle on the banks of the rivers namely the Saraswati and the Drishadvati. But with the passage of time their colony expanded to the present day’s regions of Hisar and Fatehabad. At the ancient period this area was probably under the rule of Pandavas and their successors. As per the Puranas, the today’s district of Fatehabad was a part of Nanda empire. The Ashokan pillars that found at Hisar and Fatehabad proves the rule of Mauryan dynasty in the district. After sometime these areas were went under the charge of a Mughal noble of Hansi named Illias Beg. In the year 1803 with the help of the treaty of Surji Anjangaon, the British captured this area and Marathas were vanquished forever. Earlier, Fatehabad was a part of Hisar District. Fatehabad as a separate district came into existence in 15th July, 1997.
Geographically, the district lies at 29°51'N latitude, 75°45'E longitude and 208 m altitude. It has an average elevation of 208 metres (682 feet). In the year 2021, there was a total 0.73% forest area of total geographical area. The district has a geographical area of 2,538 sq. km. and it is bounded by Punjab in North, Hisar district in South, Jind district in East and Rajasthan and Sirsa district in the West. No prominent river flows through the district; however a seasonal river i.e. Ghaghara River flows through Ratia and Jakhal. The temperature of the district is 47°C in June and 2°C in December and January. The actual rainfall in the district was 591.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district comprises of 3 sub-divisions Fatehabad, Ratia and Tohana. To administer in a better way the district is divided into 3 tehsils namely Fatehabad, Ratia and Tohana. Again, the district is divided into 3 sub-tehsils-Bhuna, Jakhal and Bhattu Kalan. Sirsa is the only Lok Sabha Constituency of the district. The district has 03 Assembly constituencies-Tohana, Fatehabad, Ratia (SC). The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 9,42,011 out of which 4,95,360 are males and 4,46,651 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 902 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth of the district was 16.85% including 15.78% were males and 18.07% were females. The population density in the district is 371 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 17,742 out of which 9,174 were males and 8,568 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,598 out of which 4,057 were males and 2,541 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district are Hindu and Sikh with 82.72% and 16.03% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Punjabi with 57.98% and 41.29%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. The core crops of the district are cotton, wheat, gram, sugarcane and paddy. With the growth of infrastructural facilities, some industries has established in the district which are also contributing in its economic welfare. Some of the prime industries of the district include cotton textile, agricultural implements, light machinery, electrical goods, pottery and food processing. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 2,86,206 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 3,39,330 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 2,66,927 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 2,25,684 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP at factor cost during the period 2011-12 was Rs. 80,425 lakh at Current Price during the period 2004-2005.
As per 2011 census the literacy rate of the district is 67.92% including 76.14% are males and 58.87% are females. Some of the reputed educational institutions of the district include Apex College of Education, Shaheed Udham Singh School of Nursing, Surya College of Education, Tirupati College of Education, Crescent College of Education, Defence College of Education, National School of Nursing, Shaheed Baba Deep Singh College, Guru Nanak College of Business Administration, etc.
Balwan Singh Daulatpuria, a veteran politician of the district. He was born on March 2nd, 1965 at village Daulatpur in the district. He is the member of Indian National Lok Dal political party. In 2014 he was elected to Haryana assembly election from Fatehabad constituency.
The centres of attraction of the district allure numerous travellers from different parts of the world. Humayun mosque of the Fatehabad city was built by the Mughal Emperor Humayun, in the Persian Style of Architecture. It is one of the earliest monuments built by the Mughals. At present Fatehabad fort built by Feroz Shah Tughlaq in the 15th century is just a mound. There is an Idgah (a place of worship) in the fort where a soft pillar stands which is called the Lat or a stone pillar. This stone pillar also draws many travellers to the district. Banawali mound is an archaeological site which is located at a place named Banawali, about 15 kms from Fatehabad city. In the year 2020-2021 there were a total 183 domestic tourists who visited the above places. Earlier this place was called as Vanawali. Kunal mound is a small but great archaeological site of the district. The mound is located on the bank of Saraswati River. Ashok Pillar is located at the centre of an Idgah of the district. The stone pillar is little less than 5 metres in height and 1.90 meters in circumference from the base.