Historically, the region is named after the ruler Palwasur. He was the king in the ancient time of Pandavas. He was killed by Balram who was the elder brother of Krishana. Every year, a festival is celebrated on this occasion with the name, Baldev Chhat Ka Mela. There is also a temple dedicated to Lord Balaram. The district also has a famous ashram named Gandhi Ashram since it was made in the memory of Mahatma Gandhi as he arrested at railway station. It was a part of Punjab and Gurgaon during the British period. The natives of the district participated in almost every national freedom movement very actively including the 1857 revolt against the British army. In the revolt of 1857, Hayat Ali and Khairat Ali were martyred along with 17 people from Palwal alone. Amongst these 17 people who were hanged in the place of Palwal included the son-in-law of Hayat Ali, Iradat Ali bin Rustam Ali. Then the British forces chased the other family members from Pinangwan. The brother of Iradat Ali from Pinangwan named Karamat Ali ran away to Tijara in order to save his life. Earlier, it was a part of the Faridabad district but later it emerged as a separate district in the year 2008.
Cheti Lal Verma is the famous personality from the district. He was born in 1921 and died on 2000. He was an industrialist who worked for the development of Jat Samaj. He was the owner of Continental Construction Ltd Company.
Geographically, the district has a total 1,359 sq. km. area and occupies the rank 17th in State and 557th in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 28015'N latitude, 77033'E longitude and 195 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 1.03% forest area of total geographical area. It is located in the middle of Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, Khair and Mathura. It is bounded by Faridabad District in the North, in the South and East and Mewat District in the West. The climate of the district remains extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 397.3 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 sub-districts, 6 towns and 280 villages. Hindi is its official language. The administrative headquarters of the district is located at Palwal City, situated at a distance of 312 kms from the State Capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 1,67,810 households with a total of 10,42,708 comprising 5,54,497 are males and 4,88,211 are females and causing it to rank 15th in the state and 434th in India. The density of population of the district is 767 persons per sq km. The sex ratio is pegged at 880 females for every 1000 males while the child ratio stands at 866 females per 1000 males. The schedule caste population of the district is recorded as 2,03,123 including 1,07,741 are males and 95,382 are females. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district is Hindi with 95.80%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 26,312 out of which 13,874 were males and 12,438 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,058 out of which 3,198 were males and 1,860 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 79.25% and 20.00% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 25.76% including 24.50% were males and 27.23% were females.
Economically, the district has both agriculture as well as industries as major source of income. Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna and other developmental programmes are running by the Government. Cotton, textiles, weaving and handloom are the main industries of the district. It is mainly famous for the cotton trade.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 69.32% including 82.66% are males and 54.23% are females. The total literate population of the district is 5,99,796 comprising 3,79,696 are males and 2,20,100 are females. Main educational institutes of the district are DCTM Delhi College of Technology and Management, Gopal Sharma Modern Vidya Niketan Institute of Engineering and Technology, NGF College of Engineering and Technology, Applied College of Management and Engineering, AITM Advanced Institute of Technology and Management, RITM Rattan Institute of Technology and Management, etc.
The district has many famous historical and religious tourist places to visit. These places are Baba Udasnath Mandir, Dauji Mandir, Panchvati Temple, Pandav Van, Raja Nahar Singhfort, Roshan Chirag Tomb, Sati ka Talab, Sayeed Sharif ki Dargah. In the year 2017-18, there were total 62,195 domestic tourists and 2,161 foreign tourists who visited the above places. Baba Udasnath Mandir is located in village, Alavalpur. A fair and wrestling competitions are organized here in his memory. Panchvati Temple is named after Pandavas. It was believed that Pandavas spent their days of exile at this place. Later a temple was constructed here. Pandava Van is a temple and also a cave. Pandavas spent their days of exile here. It is situated in Hodal city. Raja Nahar Singh Fort in Ballabgarh is famous for the vibration of its walls with the echo of drums and trumpets. It was built in the 18th century. Raja Nahar Singh was also a freedom fighter. Roshan Chirag Tomb has a square-shaped platform and an underground broad chamber. Sati ka Talab is a temple and a pond named after Devi Sati. Every year, a Mela and women wrestling are organized here.