Solan district is a district of Himachal Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Solan town. Solan town is also popularly known as the "Mushroom city of India" since it has vast mushroom farming and the Directorate of Mushroom Research (DMR). The areas of the today’s Solan district consists of the territories of the earlier princely states of Bhagal, Bhagat, Kunihar, Kuthar, Mangal, Beja, Mahlog, Nalagarh, some parts of Keonthal and Kothi and hilly areas of the former Punjab State which later were merged with the state of Himachal Pradesh on 1st November, 1966. Most of these princely state according to the historical evidences were subjected to the onslaught of Gorkha invasion from the year 1803 to 1805. It was in the year 1815 that after the British won over Gorkhas, then these states were freed and restored to its earlier respective rulers. Moreover, most of the states were small in size and population as well and were under the control of the superintendent of Shimla Hill States prior to their independence. Solan as a separate district came into existence on the map of Himachal Pradesh state on 1st September, 1972. The district was carved out by combining Solan and Arki tehsils of the former Mahasu district and tehsils of Kandaghat and Nalagarh of the former Shimla district. The district got its name from Mata Shoolini Devi since its natives believe that she was the one who saved Solan from being destroyed.
Geographically, the district lies at 30090'N latitude and 77010'E longitude. The maltitude in the district is 1600 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 45.99% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,936 sq kms and it is bounded by Bilaspur district and Mandi district on the North, Sirmaur district on the South East, Shimla district on the East and Punjab and Haryana on the West. The climate of the district is neither too hot in the summer nor too cold in the winter. Solan experiences a little bit snowfall only in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1305.0 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 9 sub-districts, 8 towns and 2,544 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to the 2011 census the district has a population of 5,80,320 including 3,08,754 are males and 2,71,566 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 880 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 15.93% out of which 14.23% were males and 17.94% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 94.53% of the total population. The population density in the district is 300 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 87.05%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 8,547 out of which 4,456 were males and 4,089 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,603 out of which 1,620 were males and 983 were females.
The economy of the Solan district is mainly based on industrial sector. Nalagarh, one of the most significant tehsil of the district is well known as the Pharma Center since the Prime Minister of India introduced the Special Subsidies in the year 1999. Xchanging Technology Limited is a UK based Technology Company (MNC) which provides employment opportunities to a large section of the people in the region. It has also planning to grow further in forth coming years. Some UK based Insurance Business and software testing and development are carried out from this office at Solan. Tourism also contributes to its economy to a great extent. In the year 2015-2016 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 28,03,653 lakh at current price in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2015-16 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 23,81,140 lakh at current price in the year 2011-2012. In the year 2015-2016 the Per Capita Income was in Rs. 3,94,102 at Current Price in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognized educational institutions are Genius Global Playschool, Doon Valley Public School, MRA DAV Sr Sec Public School, St. Luke's Sen Sec School, Punj Villa School, Govt. Boys school, Govt. Girls School, Dayanand Adarsh Vidalya, B.L Central Public school, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 83.68% including 89.56% are males and 76.97% are females. The number of literates in the district is 4,28,578 including 2,44,372 are males and 1,84,206 are females.
Rajeev Bindal, the former minister of health and family welfare in Government of Himachal Pradesh was born on 12th January, 1955 at Solan. He was elected as a MLA in 2000 and served as the Chairman of HP State Pollution Control Board.
Then district has several centers of attraction which allures many travelers from different parts of the country as well as world. Chail, a very beautiful place located at a distance of 38 km. from Solan is surrounded by mesmerizing natural sceneries. The Chail Palace in this place is famous for its unique architecture which was constructed by the Maharaja of Patiala during the period of British Raj as a summer retreat. Jatoli temple in Solan is dedicated to Lord Shiv. This is renowned as Asia's biggest temple of Lord Shiva. Mohan Shakti Heritage Park, a new heritage park opened in the district in order to offer knowledge on the Vedic Sciences and also on the Vedas and ancient Indian Culture. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Arki Fort, Nalagarh Fort, Subathu Cantonment Board, Kasauli Cantonment Board, Dagshai Cantonment Board, Kasauli and many more.