Historically, Yadgir (1347 to 1425 AD) was a capital of the Yadava Kingdom that’s why it was called as “Yadavagiri” by the local people. During different periods of time the place was ruled by different dynasties likewise, the Satavahans, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Rastrkuta, the Bahamani Sultanate, Shahis, the Aidil shahis, the Nizam Shahis and many more. In the year 1504 Yadgir (Gulbarga) was permanently annexed to the Adil Shahi kingdom of Bijapur. In 1657 when Mir Jumla invaded the place it automatically passed into the hands of Mughals. Later with the establishment of Asaf Jahi (Nizam) Dynasty of Hyderabad (1724-1948) Yadgir and Gulbarga became a part of it. In 1863 when Nizam Government formed Jillabandi, Surpur (Shorapur) became district headquarters, with nine talukas including Gulbarga as one of them. In the year 1873 Gulbarga was emerged as a separate district with seven taluks. With reorganization of states in 1956 Gulbarga became part of Karnataka state and Divisional headquarters. The district is very rich in cultural traditions. Western Chalukyas ruled the region from the 10th to 12th centuries. There are a number of churches, temples and other religious places in the district. Earlier, it was the part of Gulbarga. On 10th April, 2010 Yadgir was emerged as a separate districton the map of Karnataka state.
Geographically, the district has total 5,270 sq km. and occupies the ranks 18th in State and 206th in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 16°76' N latitude, 77°14' E longitude and 509 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 2.79% forest area of total geographical area. The district is rich in fertile black soil. The district has two main rivers namely Krishna and Bhima, and also a few tributaries of them. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 775.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 3 sub-districts, 7 towns and 487 villages. Kannada is its administrative language. Its district Headquarter is at Yadgir which is located at a distance of 493 km from the State Capital.
Demographically, according to 2011 census, the district has a total number of 2,00,424 households with a total population of 11,74,271 out of which 5,90,329 are males and 5,83,942 are females causing it to rank 24th in the state and 404th in India. The density of population of the district is 223 persons per sq km. The sex ratio is pegged at 989 females per 1000 males while the child ratio stands at 951 females per 1000 males. As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region is Hindu at 84.99% and Muslim at 13.23%. The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 22.81% including 22.39% were males and 23.24% were females. According to the 2011 census, the percentage of other principal languages spoken in the region is Kannada at 74.06%, Urdu at 11.97% and Hindi at 7.70%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 25,166 out of which 12,907 were males and 12,259 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 7,598 out of which 5,088 were males and 2,510 were females.
Economically, the district is based on agriculture primarily. The district is called a “Daal bowl” of the state. It is also popular for cluster of cement industries and a distinct stone popularly known as “Malakheda. Hattikuni and Soudha ghar are two irrigation projects here. The district has numerous industries of cement, textile, leather, and chemical. In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 16,39,074 lakhs at current price and Rs. 11,82,447 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 14,34,915 lakh at current price and Rs. 10,14,580 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 1,12,937 at current price and Rs. 79,854 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. There is one Sugar and fuel industry "Core Green" near Hiretumkur village. The district is rich in natural resources such as water and uranium etc.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the district the literacy rate is 51.83% including 62.25% are males and 41.38% are females. The total literate population of the district is 5,10,003 including 3,06,751 are males and 2,03,252 are females. The district has a number of primary schools, high schools, pre-university colleges, degree colleges, and polytechnic institute. Major institutions in the district are namely Chiranjeevi Methodist High School, Mahatma Gandhi High School & PU Science College, Dhoka Jain High School, Don Bosco School & College, Jawar Education Society, R.V. Education Trust, New Kannada Higher Primary School & College, Sri Chennareddy Patil PU College, Chiranjeevi Methodist Composite PU College, Government Degree College, Government Higher, Nivedita Education Society, Government Junior College, Yadgir Polytechnic and Shri Balaji Lower Primary school, etc. There is also an Agriculture University which is situated in Bheemarayana Gudi.
The district has a number of historical and religious famous places to visit. These attractive famous places are Mailapur Mailar lingeshwar Temple, Sleeping Buddha, Shorapur Fort, The Fort of Vanadurga, Narayanpur Dam, Thinthini Mouneshwar Temple, Chaya Bhagavati Temple, Chaya Bhagavati Temple, Kodekal Basavanna, Shiraval Village, Syed Chanda Husain, Sofi Sarmast Durga, Bheemarayan Gudi and Abbetumakur Temple. During the year 2016, there were total 44,642 Domestic Tourist who visited above places. On the way from Gulbarga to Bangalore nearby Shahapur, there is an identified image of the Lord Buddha in the sleeping posture across the hill. The Fort of Vanadurga is 24 km. distance from Shahapur. It got the name ‘Vanadurga’ because of surrounding of dense forest around it. As it has been covered by the forest, it got the name ‘Vanadurga’ which means the fort of the forest. It has two entrance gates with Sanskrit inscription in Devanagari script. Narayanpur Dam was founded by the Prime Minister Shree Lal Bhaddur Shastri in 1962. It is constructed to provide water for irrigation. Thinthini Mouneshwar Temple is located at the southern part of Shorapur. It was an ancient temple named Dakshina Kashi and Agrahar (Education Center) during the period of Vikramaditya VI.