Malappuram is a district of Kerala state with its administrative headquarters located at Malappuram city. The term Malappuram means "terraced place atop the hills", it is in context of the general geographical characteristics of the district. Earlier the district was known as Eranad, Valluvanad etc. During different periods of time the district was ruled by many differemt powerful dynasties namely Chera dynasty, Kulasekhara dynasty, Valluvanad dynasty, Vettattunadu (Tanur) dynasty, Parappanad dynasty and Nediyiruppu (the Zamorins) dynasty. Moreover, the place has a rich cultural and political heritage from the very beginning. When the rule of Chera Dynasty was over, a number of other dynasties came to this place in order to control it and by the 9th century the region was ruled by the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the downfall of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Nair city-states was formed including Valluvanad, Vettattunadu (Tanur), Parappanad and Nediyiruppu (ruled by the Zamorins). In the 13th century, the Samoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, was in Malappuram district. Malappuram had participated actively in almost all the freedom movements of India but mainly in Khilafat Movement and Moplah Rebellion in the early 20th century. At the time of British rule it was a part of Malabar district in the Madras Presidency. But to form the Kerala state, Malabar district was merged with Travancore-Cochin on 1st November 1956. In the year 1976 Malappuram was emerged as a separate district in the map of Kerala state. Some portion of earlier Palakkad and Kozhikode districts comprises the Malappuram district. It was also formed by some parts of Ernad taluk, Tirur taluk of Kozhikode district and Perinthalmannna and Ponnani taluks of Palakkad district.
Edasseri Govindan Nair, a distinguished Indian poet who wrote 19 books and 300 poems in 10 anthologies, 6 books of plays and a collection of essays in his own Malayalam tongue was born on 23rd December, 1906 at Kuttippuram in the district. He was also honoured by many awards among which Kerala Sahitya Academy Award for the collection of poems Oru Pidi Nellikka in1969 and Sahitya Academy Award for the collection of poems Kavile Pattu in 1970 are notable.
Geographically, the district lies at 11°04'N latitude, 76°08'E longitude and 47 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 55.82% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies a geographical area of 3,554 sq km. and it is bounded by Wayanad and Kozhikkode districts on the north, Tamil Nadu on the northeast, Palakkad district on the southeast and south, Thrissur district on the southwest, the Arabian Sea on the west and Kozhikode district on the northwest. During the summer the climate of the district is mild hot and humid. Monsoon starts with heavy rainfall. The actual rainfall in the district was 2936.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 revenue divisions are Tirur and Perintalmanna. It has 7 tehsils namely Ernad, Tirur, Tirurangadi, Ponnani, Perintalmanna, Nilmabur and Kondotty. There are 3 Parliament and 16 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 44 towns and 83 villages. The administrative language in the district is Malayalam.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 41,12,920 out of which 19,60,328 are males and 21,52,592 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1098 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 13.45% including 11.73% were males and 15.06% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Muslim and Hindu with 70.24% and 27.6% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,157 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Malayalam with 99.46%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 90,367 out of which 45,679 were males and 44,685 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 21,608 out of which 11,414 were males and 10,191 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of its economy. The chief agricultural crops grows in the district are paddy, cashew nut, pepper, ginger, pulses, coconut, banana, tapioca, rubber, etc. The district is industrially not so well developed. Wood business is very popular in Malappuram district. Saw mills, furniture manufactures and timber sales are some other the most vital trades in the district. A huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries every year. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 66,51,749 lakhs at current price and Rs. 42,36,039 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 60,26,642 lakh at current price and Rs. 38,91,638 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 1,29,981 at current price and Rs. 83,934 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district has numbers schools and other higher educational institutions. The University of Calicut, established in 1968 is located at Thenjipalam in the district. Moreover, the Aligarh Muslim University Malappuram Centre is situated at Chelamala in the district provides a plateform for the higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 93.57% including 95.76% are males and 91.62% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 33,11,315 including 15,97,404 are males and 17,13,911 are females.
U. A. Beeran, an eminent Indian politician and the minister in the Kerala Government with the portfolio of Education and Social Welfare (27th January, 1978 to 3rd November, 1978) was born on 9th March, 1925 at Kottakkal in the district. He was also served as the minister in the Kerala Government with portfolio of Food and Civil Supplies (24th May, 1982 to 25th March, 1987). Earlier, he was a member of Indian Union Muslim League but later joined with the Indian National League. Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad or EMS, an illustrious Indian communist politician and theorist, who served as the first Chief Minister of Kerala (1957-59) and again (1967-69) was born on 13th June, 1909 at Perintalmanna in the district. Before 1964 he is a member of Communist Party of India (CPI) but in 1964, he came out of CPI to form the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
During the year June 2021, there were 1,31,642 domestic tourists and 121 foreign tourists. The district has numerous sets of tourist places which attracts the travellers from different parts of the world. The up and down hill in the district, in the up hill there are many important government officials on the other hand down hill is basically a commercial area. Melmuri is situated at a distance of 4 km. from the city. Swalath Nagar and Grand Masjid are the identity of the place. Padinharekara beach is located at the end point of the Tipu Sulthan road. One can enjoy a mesmerising view of the confluence of the river Bharathapuzha and Tirur puzha with the Arabian Sea. Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary is 19 kms from Kozhikode and 7 kms from Beypore port. Every year a large variety of native birds and also migratory birds flock in the place. Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala is a world famous Ayurveda Institute which is engaged in the practice and propagation of Ayurveda, the ancient health care system of India.