The Thiruvananthapuram district is a district of coastal state Kerala and situated in the southernmost area of the state. The administrative headquarters of the district is located at Thiruvananthapuram city. The district is named after the name of the city Thiruvananthapuram. The name of the city is derived from the term "Thiru-anantha-puram" which means the "Abode of Lord Anantha". The city also got its name from the deity of a Hindu temple situated at the heart of the city. Till the year 1991 the district was officially known as Trivandrum. Later, the government of India renamed the city as Thiruvananthapuram. In 1684 the British East India Company occupied a region at Anchuthengu, a place located at a distance of 32 km. from Thiruvananthapuram city, in order to spread their trade and commerce. Prior to British, the Portuguese and the Dutch also tried to rule the South India. Before India got its independence, the Thiruvananthapuram city was the capital of Travancore state. As a result to the recommendations of the State Reorganization Commission, the Vilavancode taluk from Thiruvananthapuram was merged with the state of Tamil Nadu, along with three other southern taluks namely Thovala, Agastheewaram and Kalkulam from Travancore which eventually created the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu state. And the state of Kerala came into being on 1st November, 1956.
Neyyattinkara Vasudevan, a prominent carnatic music vocalist was born in the year 1940 at Neyyattinkara in the district. He was the disciple of most admired carnatic music master, Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer and Ramnad Krishnan. He was honoured by many notable awards such as Padma Shri in 2004 and Swati Puraskaram in 2006. Senapathy Gopalakrishnan, popularly known as Kris Gopalakrishnan is the executive vice chairman and former co-chairman of Infosys, a global consulting and IT services company. He was born on 5th April, 1955 at Trivandrum in the district. The Government of India honoured him the most prestigious Padma Bhushan award in 2011.
Geographically, the district lies at 8°49'N latitudes, 76°95'E longitudes and 5 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 60.17% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 2,189 sq km. and it is surrounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Kollam district on the north, Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu on the east and Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu on the south. The climate of the district is characterised as the hot tropical climate. Most of its rainfall occurs during the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2755.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into six taluks namely Thiruvananthapuram, Chirayinkeezhu, Neyyattinkara, Nedumangadu, Varkala and Kattakada. Moreover, there are two parliamentary constituencies in the district including Attingal and Thiruvananthapuram. Moreover, the district comprises 31 towns and 68 villages. The administrative language in the district is Malayalam.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 33,01,427 including 15,81,678 are males and 17,19,749 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1087 females for every 1000 males. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 2.07% out of which 0.75% were males and 3.32% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Christian with 66.46% and 19.10% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,508 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district is Malayalam with 98.25%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 41,533 out of which 21,157 were males and 20,373 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 31,033 out of which 17,506 were males and 13,526 were females.
More than half of the population of the district earns their livelihood from agriculture. Some of its chief agricultural products are rice, pepper, ginger, cashew nut, tapioca, coconut, areca nut, tea, rubber, etc. The economy of the district is mainly dependent on the tertiary sector. Slowly and gradually the district is transforming into an IT hub. Some foremost industries in the district are Oracle Corporation, Infosys, ITC Infotech, TCS, Capgemini, Visual Graphics Computing Services, Ernst & Young Global Shared Services Centre, Allianz Cornhill, RR Donnelley, UST Global, IBS Software Services, SunTec Business Solutions etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 72,22,657 lakhs at current price and Rs. 46,52,026 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 63,36,879 lakh at current price and Rs. 41,64,459 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 1,88,237 at current price and Rs. 1,23,705 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The Kerala University and the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University are located in the city. Some of its reputed higher educational institutes are Thiruvananthapuram College of Engineering, Government Engineering College, Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering, Trivandrum College of Architecture, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Centre for Development Studies, Centre for Development of Imaging Technology, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 93.02% including 95.06% are males and 91.17% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 27,85,408 out of which 13,54,857 are males and 14,30,551 are females.
Pattom A. Thanu Pillai, a distinguished Indian politician popularly known as the 'Bhishmacharya' of Kerala politics and an active participant in the Indian independence movement was born on 15th July, 1885 at Thiruvananthapuram city. He was served as the Chief Minister of Kerala from 22nd February, 1960 to 25th September, 1962. Vakkom Purushothaman, an illustrious Indian politician and the governor of Mizoram from 2011 to 2014 was born on 12th April, 1928 at Vakkom in the district. He was a member of Indian National Congress.
During the year June 2021, there were 4,90,854 domestic tourists and 1,652 foreign tourists. The district is a perfect tourist location and its large variety of tourist places allures many travellers from across the world. Agastyakoodam, one of the highest peaks in the Western Ghats is situated in the eastern side of the district. Native of the district believe that the great sage Agasthya lived on the peak. Moreover, the peak is rich in many useful ayurvedic herbs. Akkulam in the city is full of mesmerising beautiful natural sceneries. It is an ideal place for picnic and recreation. Aruvippuram, a place located 7 km. away from Neyyattiankara has an ancient temple of Lord Shiva which was constructed by Sree Narayana Guru. Meenmutti and Kombaikani waterfalls are the two magnificent waterfalls in the district. Some other renowned centres of attraction in the district are Shanghumugham Beach, Azhimala Beach, Kovalam Beach, Sarkara, Varkala, Peppara, Neyyar Dam, etc.