Historically, South Garo Hills district is an administrative district of Meghalaya. It is considered as the least populous district of Meghalaya. The history of the district is not so clear but as per its modern history, the contact between the British and the Garos started in the nearby period of the 18th century after the British East India Company had secured the Diwani of Bengal from the hands of Mughal Emperor. As a result, all the estates in the boundary of the Garo Hills, which for all practical purposes had been semi-independent were brought under the control of the British. At that time the political control of the place had passed from the Mughals to the British. So in the beginning, the intermittent conflict between the Zamindars and the Garos went on unabated until the situation became deteriorated to the extent that finally the British were forced to take a notice. This development led to the complete annexation of the Garo Hills in the year 1873. The first Deputy Commissioner of the unified district was Captain Williamson. The district was bifurcated into two districts namely East Garo Hills and West Garo Hills districts in October 1979. The district of West Garo Hills was further divided into two administrative districts likewise West and South Garo Hills on 28th August, 1976 with its headquarters at Baghmara.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 1,887 sq. km. and occupies the rank 7th State and 507th in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 25033' N latitude, 90056' E longitude and 1000 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total forest area of 90.21% out of total geographical area. It is surrounded by East Garo Hills District in the North, Bangladesh in the South, West Khasi Hills District in the East and West Garo Hills District in the West. Simsang, Bugai, Dareng, Daldem, Mahadeo and Kanai are major rivers of the district. The actual rainfall in the district was 2182.0 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 blocks namely Baghmara, Chokpot, Gasuapara and Rongara. It has total 1 town and 804 villages. English is its official language. Its district code is 295. The district came into existence on 28th August, 1976 with its administrative headquarters located at Baghmara, situated at a distance of 291 kms from the state capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 24,208 households with a total population of 1,42,334 comprising 73,170 are males and 69,164 are females which causing it to rank 7th in the state and 602 in India. The density of population of the district is 75 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 945 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 974 (females per 1000 males). The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 40.95% including 40.69% were males and 41.23% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 93.43% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Garo with 94.72%.
Economically, the district is dependent on agriculture primarily. Rice, maize, potato, banana, pineapple, ginger, turmeric, bay leaf, arecanut, oranges and jackfruit are mainly grown her. The district is rich in mineral resources such as coal, limestone, uranium, quartz, etc. The district is considered as one of the most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Region Grant Fund. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 43,543 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 31,713 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 37,582 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 28,992 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 34,070 at Current Price and Rs. 1,103 at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate is 71.72% out of which 76.23% are males and 66.9% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 82,062 including 45,003 are males and 37,059 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 60,272 including 28,167 are males and 32,105 are females. The Ancheng Rangmanpa College is Graduation College. The college comes under Ampati Civil Sub-Division till date. The college is named after ‘Ancheng’ the father of Rangmanpa who was the great grandfather of the popular and beloved leader Shri. Purno A. Sangma. According to the National Policy on Education 1986, Navodaya Vidhyalaya is established by the education broad.
Williamson Ampang Sangma was the founder Chief Minister of Meghalaya. He served as the first ever Governor of Mizoram in 1989. He was also known as a statesman, tribal leader, and a pioneer in leading the struggle for the creation of Meghalaya state.
The district has many famous and beautiful tourist places to visit. These places are Balpakram National Park, Boldak Matchu Karam, Chidimak, Matchru, Areng Patal, Goncho Dare, Dikkini Ring, Rongsaljong Agal, Rongsobok Rongkol, Siju Cave. Tourists from worldwide visit here every year.