The history of the district is not so clear but as per its modern history, the contact between the British and the Garos started in the nearby period of the 18th century after the British East India Company had secured the Diwani of Bengal from the hands of Mughal Emperor. As a result, all the estates in the boundary of the Garo Hills, which for all practical purposes had been semi-independent were brought under the control of the British. At that time the political control of the place had passed from the Mughals to the British. So in the beginning, the intermittent conflict between the Zamindars and the Garos went on unabated until the situation became deteriorated to the extent that finally the British were forced to take a notice. This development led to the complete annexation of the Garo Hills in the year 1873. The first Deputy Commissioner of the unified district was Captain Williamson. In the year 1976 the Garo Hills district was bifurcated into two districts namely West Garo Hills district and East Garo Hills district. Therefore, West Garo Hills as a separate district came into existence on 28th August, 1976 with its headquarters at Tura.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 3,677 sq. km. and occupies the rank 3rd State and 330th in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 25057' N latitude, 90022' E longitude and 1400 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 77.79% forest area of total geographical area. It is surrounded by Goalpara District of Assam in the North and North West, South Garo Hills District in the South East and Bangladesh in the South. Kalu, Ringgi, Didak, Bhogai, Dareng, Someswari, Jinjiram, Kalu, Didak, Rongai are major rivers of the district. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1534.7 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, West Garo Hills district is divided into six blocks such as Dadenggiri, Dalu, Gambegre, Rongram, Selsella and Tikrikilla. It is divided into 8 sub-districts, 1 town and 1,663 villages. English is its official language. Its district code is 293. The district came into existence on 28th August, 1976 with its administrative headquarters located at Tura, situated at a distance of 307 kms from the state capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 1,21,780 households with a total population of 6,43,291 comprising 3,24,159 are males and 3,19,132 are females which causing it to rank 2nd in the state and 513 in India. The density of population of the district is 175 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 984 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 976 (females per 1000 males). The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 24.09% including 23.06% were males and 25.17% were females. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 25,437 including 12,982 were males and 12,455 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,470 including 2,036 were males and 1,434 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Christian and Hindu with 60.62% and 19.11% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Garo and Bengali with 64.41% and 24.91%.
The district is dependent on agriculture primarily. Millet, maize, tapioca and rice are the main agricultural products of the district. The district is considered as one of the most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Region Grant Fund. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 1,26,375 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 98,863 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 1,13,961 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 89,598 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2007-08 was Rs. 20,249 at Current Price and Rs. 5,628 at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate is 67.58% out of which 72.39% are males and 62.7% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 3,58,702 including 1,93,438 are males and 1,65,264 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 2,84,589 including 1,30,721 are males and 1,53,868 are females. Some of its most reputed educational institutions are Don Bosco College, Montfort School, College of Home Science, College of Teacher Education, Tura Government College, ICFAI University, NEHU Tura Campus, EuroKids Tura, Harding Theological College, Durama College, Department Of Management, St. Mary's Higher Secondary School, Tura Public School, Eurokids, etc.
Purno Agitok (P. A.) Sangma was appointed as the Speaker of the Lok Sabha from 1996 to 1998 and Chief Minister of Meghalaya from 1988 to 1990.
The district has many famous and beautiful tourist places to visit. These places are Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, Daribokgre Rural Tourism (Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, Tura Peak, Pelga Falls, Wadagokgre, Kata Beel, Darga of Hazrat Shah Kamal Baba, Mir Jumla’s Tomb, Arbella Peak, Rongbang Dare, Sasatgre, Chibragre, Rombagre, Mande Burung (Jungle Man), Kima Songa (Totems Or Memorial Posts), Typical Garo Villages, Local Bazar Days, Asanangre. A number of tourists from worldwide come to this place every year.