The history of Sambalpur has proved that Jharsuguda was earlier known as Jharguda. According to a myth, Jharguda was established by kishans of Jharkhand state under the leadership of Jharkishan during the 12th century AD. Chauhan dynasty ruled over the part for a long time. Chauhan dynasty was succeeded by Marahattas Bhonsle. In the 16th Century, Balram Dev of Chauhan dynasty founded the Kingdom of Sambalpur. During the rule of Chhattrasai Dev, the 7th King of this dynasty (1656-1688) Jharguda was a very small place bounded by dense forest where a man eating tiger had troubled the people of this area a lot. At that time, Siva Singh, the grandson of Chhattrasai Dev killed the tiger and brought relief to the people. So, in recognition Chhattrasai Dev awarded the area to Siva Singh as ‘Bhrutti’ or ‘Jageri’. Later, the descendants of Siva Singh continued their rule in the region uninterrupted from any outside force from 16th Century to the end of the 18th century. In 1818, British took over the region and made Maharaja Sai a puppet king. British had to face many revolts here for kingship by royal families. Jharguda came under Orissa in 1905. In 1884, A Sanitation committee was established by British for Jharsuguda. It is a hub of metallurgical industries. It has a number of thermal power stations that’s why it is called the power house of Odisha.
Surendra Sai was an Indian freedom fighter from the district. He and his associates saved many parts of Western Odisha from British rule for some time. He died in 1884 in Asirgarh Jail.
Geographically, the district has a total 2,114 sq. kms. area and occupies the rank 29th in State and 488th in India on the basis of this size. It lies at 21086'N latitude, 84002'E longitude and 218 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total of 15.74% forest area of the total geographical area. It is surrounded by Sundergarh district in the North, Sambalpur district and Bargarh district in the South, Sambalpur district in the East and Chhattisgarh in the West. The principal river of the district named Ib River passes through it. The climate of the district is extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1306.8 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 10 sub-districts, 5 towns and 351 villages. Oriya is its official language. It came into existence on 1st April, 1993 with its administrative headquarters located at Jharsuguda which is situated at a distance of 353 kms. from the State Capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 1,34,624 households with a total of 5,79,505 comprising 2,96,690 are males and 2,82,815 are females which leads it to rank 27th in the state and 532nd in India. The density of population of the district is 274 (persons per sq. kms.). The sex ratio is pegged at 953 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 943 (females per 1000 males). The schedule caste population of the district is recorded as 1,04,620 including 52,580 are males and 52,040 are females. As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region is Hindu 95.53%. The population growth rate during the period of 2001-2011 was 13.69% including 13.27% were males and 14.14% were females. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district are Oriya and Hindi with 70.04% and 14.24%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 8,682 out of which 4,655 were males and 4,027 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,385 out of which 2,575 were males and 1,810 were females.
Economically, the district is mainly dependent on industries. The Gross District Domestic Product during 2011-12 was Rs. 3,97,203 lakh at current price and Rs. 2,54,238 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The Net District Domestic Product during 2011-12 was Rs. 3,15,817 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,91,873 lakh at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during 2011-12 was Rs. 54,148 at current price and Rs. 32,897 at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. It is receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Program as a backward region of Orissa. This district is rich in coal, iron, steel and other mineral resources. It is famous for paper mills, iron and steel industries, coal mining and cement industry. Paddy, sesame, horse gram, mustard, green gram, mango, banana, citrus, and guava are main agricultural products of the district. Aditya Birla Group, Vedanta Alumina Ltd., Reliance Energy, Sterlite Energy Ltd., Bhushan Power and Steel Ltd., Orissa Power Generation Corporation Ltd. are the major industrial units available here. The district has Ib Thermal Power Station (ITPS), operated by the state owned Orissa Power Generation Corporation, sourced from Ib Valley Coalfield. It is situated on the Hirakud Dam.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 78.86% persons out of which 86.61% are males and 70.73% are females. The total literate population of the district is 4,05,879 including 2,28,092 are males and 1,77,787 are females. Laxminarayan College, Women's College, Jharsuguda Engineering School, S.M College, PKSS College, Black Diamond School of Engineering, Black Diamond College of Engineering and Technology, DIET Industrial Training Centre, B.N College, Mahima College, Belpahar College, Aparna World School, Town High School, Panchpara High School, V.S.S High School, Saraswati Vidya Mandir, S.S College and NIIT IT Training Centre are some of the most reputed educational institutions in the district.
The district has several historical and religious tourist places to visit. These places are Bikramkhol, Jhadeswar Temple, Chandi Mandir, Pahadi Mandir, Koilighughar Waterfall. In the year 2018, there were total 4,50,314 domestic tourists and 3,841 foreign tourists who visited these places. Ancient cave of Bikramkhol is situated on Jharsuguda-Lakhanpur Road. Evidences of human civilization are available here such as paintings of animals. Hirakud reservoir is located on the left side of village Bhikampali. Earlier, it was called Padampur. Chalukya king of South built the temple of “Padmashini’ in 7th century AD. and reconstructed by the Chouhan king of Sambalpur in 16th century. It shows the best art and architecture of Chalukyas. Ramchandi is a cave. It is a scared place of Shakti worship dedicated to Goddess Ramchandi. The ‘Jhadeswar’ temple has a self appearing (Swayambhu) Sivalingam. It was renovated in 1969 by Lt. Surajmal Mohota. A fair is held here every year on Shivratri since 1916. There is also a beautiful garden near the temple.