Medak district is a district of Telangana state with its administrative headquarters located at Sangareddi town. In the pre-historic period some traces of Neolithic and Megalithic culture was found at Edithanur and Wargal village hillocks in the district. Furthermore, some rock paintings were found at the boulders and rocks of Edithanur and Hastallapur. Once upon a time the place was a part of the great Mauryan Empire during the regime of Ashoka. Then came the Sathavahanas, they also ruled the place for a long time. Till today many archaeological excavations were conducted at Kondapur village in the district which depicts its glorious history since it yielded several ruins of Buddhist Monasteries and coins of Sathavahana dynasty. Even some inscriptions prove the fact that the existence of Jain Vestiges in the district. Medak area was flourished during the period of Kakatiya Empire. At that time a fort was constructed at Medak named the Methukudurgam, derived from the Telugu term, “Methuku” meaning cooked rice grain. In 20th century, prior to India’s independence Medak district was under the princely State of Nizam and after independence it merged into Hyderabad State. Finally, when Telangana got its statehood then it became a part of Telangana. Earlier, Qutub Shahis called it as Gulshanabad meaning "city of gardens" but later because of its luscious greenery it was again named as Medak.
Geographically, the district lies at 18005' N latitude, 78026' E longitude and 442 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 7.62% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 9,699 sq km. and it is bounded by Nizamabad district on the North, Hyderabad district of Andhra Pradesh on the South, Warangal district and Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh on the East and Karnataka on the West. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 681.7 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 46 sub-districts, 24 towns and 1,231 villages. The administrative headquarters of the district is located at Medak town. The administrative language in the district is Telugu.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 30,33,288 out of which 15,23,030 are males and 15,10,258 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 992 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 13.60% including 12.61% were males and 14.62% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 86.95% of the total population. The population density in the district is 313 persons per sq. km. As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Telugu and Urdu with 79.66% and 10.58%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 8,799 including 4,666 were males and 4,133 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,857 including 2,745 were males and 2,112 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, maize sugarcane, jowar and chillies. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. Industrialization is confined to a few small scale industries, basically situated nearer to Hyderabad. In 2006 the Indian government declared Medak as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 11,18,139 lakh at current price and Rs. 7,93,418 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2015-16 was Rs. 8,96,759 lakh at current price and Rs. 7,02,268 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2017-18 was Rs. 1,23,748 at current price and Rs. 86,374 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 61.42% including 71.43% are males and 51.37% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 16,37,137 including 9,53,406 are males and 6,83,731 are females.
Mogaligundla Baga Reddy, an eminent Indian politician who served as a member of the 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th Lok Sabha from the Medak lok sabha constituency was born on 17th June, 1930 at the Malchalma village in the Medak district. He was also served as the speaker of the legislative assembly and a cabinet minister.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Narsapur Forest, located at a distance of 35 km. from Hyderabad is spread between Gummadidala and Narsapur. This forest covers a geographical area of 30 sq km. and has a variety of trees, many lakes and supports wildlife. Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary, situated 75 km. away from Medak is extended over an area of 20 sq km. The Manjira wild life sanctuary comprises nine small islands which are abode to a number of migratory birds and crocodiles. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Medak Church, Kondapur Archaeological Museum, Medak Fort, Pocharam Sanctuary, Zarasangam, Alladurg Temple and many more.