Nalgonda district is a district of Telangana state with its administrative headquarters located at Nalgonda city. The district got its name from two Telugu words Nalla and Konda. The first term Nalla means black on the other hand Konda means hills. Both the terms together means “The city of Black Hills”. Earlier, Nalgonda was popularly known as Nilagiri. Again, during the medieval period when Allauddin Bahaman Shah, a Bahamani king conquered the reign he renamed the place as Nallagonda. After sometime the name of the place was changed to "Nalgonda" for official uses during the rule of the later Nizam kings. During different periods of time the place was ruled by different dynasties likewise, Mauryas and Satavahanas (230 BC-218 BC), Ikshvakus (227 AD-306 AD), Pallavas and Yadavas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, Kakatiya dynasty, Mughal, etc. At the period of Telangana Rebellion, the district played a vital role. Most of the villages in the district were actively involved in this rebellion. At present the district is a part of the Red Corridor.
Suddala Hanmanthu, a notable Indian poet of the mid 1900s was born in the Nalgonda district. He had earned fame for his Telugu songs and was honoured by the prestigious National Film Award for Best Lyrics in 2003.
Geographically, the district lies at 17019' N latitude, 79020' E longitude and 420 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 2.91% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 14,240 sq km. and it is bounded by Medak district and Warangal district on the north, Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh and Mahabubnagar district on the south, Khammam district and Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh on the east and Mahbubnagar district and Ranga Reddy district on the west. The summers in the district are extremely hot. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 552.8 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-divisions namely Nalgonda, Suryapet, Miryalaguda, Bhongir and Devarakonda. There are 59 sub-districts and 12 assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 17 towns and 1,135 villages. The administrative headquarters of the district is located at Nalgonda city. The administrative language in the district is Telugu.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 34,88,809 out of which 17,59,772 are males and 17,29,037 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 983 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 7.41% including 6.52% were males and 8.34% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 93.13% of the total population. The population density in the district is 245 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Telugu with 84.17%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 18,460 including 10,315 were males and 8,145 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,691 including 2,411 were males and 1,280 were females.
More than half of the population of the district are engaged in agriculture. The two prominent irrigation projects namely Nagarjuna Sagar and Alimineti Madhava Reddy Project in the district helps to increase its agricultural production. Some of its chief agricultural products are paddy, pulses, lime, millets and oil seeds. The district has some well known industries of silk, jaggery, leather. cement factories, pipes manufacturing, cotton, rice mills, etc which helps in its economy to a great extent. Pochampally Saris and Puttapaka Saris of the district are very famous across the country. In 2006 the Indian government declared Nalgonda as one of the country's 250 most backward district and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2017-18 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 23,73,860 lakh at current price and Rs. 16,79,600 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2015-16 was Rs. 18,55,375 lakh at current price and Rs. 14,43,045 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2017-18 was Rs. 1,23,431 at current price and Rs. 85,978 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district provides a platform for higher education. The schools in the district impart education in 3 mediums of instruction i.e. Telugu Urdu and English. Mahatma Gandhi University is the only university in the district and it offers courses on engineering, pharmacy, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 64.2% out of which 74.1% are males and 54.19% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 20,01,019 including 11,60,757 are males and 8,40,262 are females.
Kunduru Jana Reddy, an eminent Indian politician and the minister for Panchayat Raj and Rural Water Supply in the government of Andhra Pradesh from May 2009-May 2014 was born in Anumula village in the district. He is a member of Indian National Congress party. Nalamada Uttam Kumar Reddy, a distinguished Indian politician and the present Member of the Legislative Assembly from Huzurnagar constituency with the ministerial portfolio of Housing was born on 20th June, 1962 at Suryapet in the district. He is a member of Indian National Congress party.
The district has various sets of tourist places which allures many travellers from across the country. Yadagiri Gutta, the most pious place is situated near Bhuvanagiri town in the district. Lord Laxmi Narasimha Swami temple is the identity of this place which attracts huge pilgrims from different parts of the country. Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is an extraordinary dam in south India which has 26 gates and a hydroelectric plant. Bhuvanangiri Fort, constructed by Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI on an isolated rock is associated with the brave queen Rudramadevi and her grandson Prataparudra's rule. Rajapeta Fort, situated in the district was made by Raja Rayanna, a king of Kakatiya Dynasty in 1775. During the period of Nizam this fort was popularly known as Gadi. Within the fort one can found the glass buildings, internal roads, gardens and huge walls which at that time called as Burj. Pillala Marri is a place in the district which has 1000 years old Lord Shiva temple. Some other remarkable centres of attraction in the district are Matapalli, Sri Jain Mandir, Nandikonda, Panagal, Vaadapalli, Nagulapahad, etc.