South Tripura District is a district of the Tripura state with its administrative headquarters located at Belonia town. The district is linked with Agartala by National Highway 44 via Udaipur and also via Rajnagar, Sonamura, Melaghar, and Bishramganj. Its headquarters town, Belonia shares a border with Bangladesh. After the emergence of Tripura as a full-fledged state in January 1972, some regional problems started to disturb the place and in order to eradicate these problems; Tripura was divided into three districts for the first time on 1st September, 1970 namely North Tripura District, West Tripura District and South Tripura District. At that time the undivided district headquarter was located at Udaipur.
Geographically, the district lies at 23028' N latitude and 91060' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 26 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 74.33% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,057 sq km. and it is bounded by Shipahijala district and Gomati district on the North, Bangladesh on the South and West and Gomati district on the East. The principal rivers in the district are Gumti, Muhuri and Feni. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2312.6 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 sub divisions namely Belonia, Sabroom and Santirbazar. Moreover, it comprises 11 sub-districts, 10 towns and 270 villages. The district is under the 2 Lok Sabha constituencies such as Tripura West (shared with West Tripura district) and Tripura East (shared with Dhalai and North Tripura districts). The administrative languages in the district are Bengali and Kokborok.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 8,76,001 including 4,47,544 are males and 4,28,457 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 957 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 951 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 14.15% out of which 13.42% were males and 14.92% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 84.02% of the total population. The population density in the district is 287 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Bengali and Tripuri with 60.60% and 30.86%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 7,117 including 3,800 were males and 3,317 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,516 including 1,522 were males and 994 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on the agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, pulses, potato, vegetables, tea, coffee, rubber, banana, mango, pineapple, jackfruit, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. But the district is scantily industrialised.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Belonia Vidyapith H/S School, Brajendra Kishore Institution, Aryya Colony H/S School, S.B.C Nagar H/S School, Barpathari H/S School, Brindaban Royaja Para High School, Manurmukh High School, Amjadnagar High School, Belonia Govt. English Medium H.S. School, Belonia Girls H.S. School, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar College, ITI College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 84.66% out of which 89.98% are males and 79.09% are females. The total literate population in the district is 6,46,810 including 3,51,082 are males and 2,95,728 are females. The total illiterate population in the district is 2,29,191 including 96,462 are males and 1,32,729 are females.
Baju Ban Riyan, an eminent Indian politician and a member of the central committee and the secretariat of the Tripura state unit of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI (M)) was born on 13th March, 1941 at East Bagafa village in the South Tripura district. At present he is also serving as the president of the Tripura Rajya Upajati Ganamukti Parishad. In 1980 for the first time he was elected to the 7th Lok Sabha from Tripura East constituency. Later, he was re-elected to the 8th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th Lok Sabha from the same constituency.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Pilak, an important place in the district has numbers of marvellous spots such as Shyam Sundar Tilla, Deb Bari, Thakurani Tilla, Balir Pathar, Bmasudev Bari and Sagar Deba. Kalapania Eco Park, located in the Sabroom sub-division of Tripura offers the green landscape of Kalapania dotted with green-capped hillocks to its tourists and also transparent lakes spread over twenty five hectares of land. Trishna Wild Life Sanctuary, located about 100 km. away from Agartala in Belonia Subdivision of the South Tripura District is famous for the Bison and migratory birds. Buddha temple at Manu Bankul in the South Tripura is famous for its ancient Buddhist monastery. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Shiv Bari and Tin Mandir, Debatamura, Tripura Sundari Temple, Bhuvaneswari Temple, Tirthamukh, Deer Park and Patichari and many more.