Nadia, a district of West Bengal is situated in its eastern side with its headquarters in Krishnanagar. A well known town in the Nadia district, Nabadwip is generally called as “Oxford of Bengal”. Moreover, Navya Nyaya system, one of the famous Indian schools of logic (Tarka sastra) was set up in the place of Nabadwip and it produced some prominent logicians in the 15th century. This region was a important seat of political power in Bengal under Ballal Sen and later also when it went into the hand of Lakshman Sen, king of the Sena Empire who occupied from 1159 to 1206. In the year 1202, the moment when Bakhtiyar Khilji seized Nabadwip, this victory paved the way for Muslim rule in Bengal. Nabadwip and some other places in Nadia were centres of learning and intellectual prowess. From the religious point of view as well the place enjoys a great significance as Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, a major Hindu saint, reformer was born and lived here. The religious atmosphere of Nabadwip includes Vaishnava, Shakta, Buddhist, Shaiva. The chief festival celebrates in Nabadwip is "Rash Utsab" (Rasaleela). In the year 1787 Nadia was emerged as a separate district in the map of West Bengal.
Raghunatha Shiromani, an eminent Indian philosopher and logician was born in the year 1477 at Nabadwip in the district. He was a pupil of Vasudeva Sarvabhauma. He set up a new school system of Nyaya, Navya Nyaya, representing the final development of Indian formal logic, to its peak of analytic power.
Geographically, the district lies at 23°47'N latitude, 88°56'E longitude and 14 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 12.22% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies an area of 3,927 sq km. and it is bounded by Bangladesh on the east, Bardhhaman and Hugli district on the west, Murshidabad district on the north and northwest and North 24 Parganas on the south and southeast. The chief rivers in the district are Bhagirathi, Jalangi, Bhairav, Churni, Mathabhanga and Ichamati. It is extremely hot during the summer days. Its summer highest day temperature is in between 30°C to 40°C. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1486.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 4 sub-divisions namely Krishnanagar Sadar, Kalyani, Ranaghat and Tehatta. There are 15 assembly constituencies in the district. But according to the order of theDelimitation Commission regarding the delimitation of constituencies in the state, the district will be divided into 17 assembly constituencies. Moreover, the district comprises 65 towns and 1,307villages. The administrative language in the district is Bangali.
According to the 2011 census the district has a population of 51,67,600 including 26,53,768 are males and 25,13,832 are females. The district has sex ratio of 947 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate of the district was 12.22% out of which 12.12% were males and 12.33% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 72.15% and 26.76% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,316 (persons per sq. km.). According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Bengali with 98.02%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 75,601 out of which 39,054 were males and 36,547 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 30,823 out of which 18,528 were males and 12,295 were females.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the district. The adaptability of its farmer to the new agricultural technologies and ideas help to increase the agricultural production of the district. The industries of the district are also contributing a share in its economy. The lack of vital minerals and the inefficient infrastructure stands like an obstacle in the way of the growth of traditional mineral based heavy industries. Handloom industries hold a significant position in the district. In the year 2013-14 the Gross Domestic Product of the district was Rs. 36,52,145 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 18,20,556 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs. 33,93,482 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 16,72,053 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs. 58,870 at Current Price and Rs. 29,007 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
Earlier as compare to the other districts of the state, Nadia was not educationally well developed. The rural people were not enlightened enough to come to the schools. But with the establishment of Kalyani University has made a rapid change in its educational scenario. The University conducted the undergraduate and the postgraduate programs and various vocational trainings at a time. A group of colleges not only in Nadia but its neighbouring districts are affiliated with the Kalyani University. As per 2011 census the literacy rate of the district is 74.97% including 78.75% are males and 70.98% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 34,80,555 including 18,78,866 are males and 16,01,689 are females.
Basudeb Barman, a prominent Indian politician and a member of the14th Lok Sabha of India was born on 5th October, 1935 in Nadia. He represented theMathurapur constituency of West Bengal and is a member of theCommunist Party of India (Marxist). Jyotirmoyee Sikdar, a Member of Parliament representing Krishnagar Lok Sabha constituency in the14thLok Sabha was born on 1st December, 1969 in Nadia. She is a member of Communist Party of India (Marxist). She was honoured by Padma Shree Award in 2003.
Nadia is a notable district in the sphere of tourism in India. There are numerous tourist destinations in the district which allures many travellers from different parts of the world. Mayapur, a place is situated at a distance of 40 km. from Nadia. The Iskon temple of this place is famous in West Bengal. Rajbari is the identity of Krishnanagar of the district. The Rajbari of Krishnanagar, with its collections of antique fabrications around its walls draws the attention of the tourists. Shantipur, a marvellous temple in the state is located at a distance about 30 km. of Nadia. Since the 9th century, the place is the main seat of Sanskrit learning and literature along with the Vedic texts and scriptures. Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in the Nakashipara area of the district covers 67 hectares was established in 1980. It is a remarkable wildlife sanctuary of the district.