North Twenty Four Parganas district is located in southern side of West Bengal. It is West Bengal's most populous district and the second most populated district in the whole India. In the mid of the 16th century, the lower delta region was invaded by Portuguese pirates and plunder many of the waterways as well. So, people left those regions out of the fear of being murdered, raped, or captured to be sold as slaves. At that time Basirhat sub-division of the North 24 Parganas was the one which suffered most from these torments. During the Mughal period the territory of Greater 24 Parganas were under the Satgaon administration (ancient Saptagram, now in Hoogly district).Later during the rule ofMurshid Quli Khan it was included in Hoogly chakla. After the battle of Plassey in 1757, Nawab Mir Jafar conferred the Zamindari of 24 parganas and janglimahals (small administrative units) upon the British East India Company. Since then, this entire territory is known as Twenty four Parganas. In 1793, during the rule ofLord Cornwallis,entireSunderbans were in Twenty Four Parganas. In 1802, some Parganas on the western banks of river Hoogly were included into it. Then in 1814, a separate collectorate was set up in Twenty-four Parganas. After two years in 1817, Falta and Baranagar and in 1820, some parts of Nadia’s Balanda and Anwarpur were enclosed to it. In the same way in 1824 some portions of Barasat, Khulna and Bakhargunge (at present in Bangladesh) were also merged to it. In 1824, the district headquarters was moved from Kolkata to Baruipur, later in the year 1828, it was removed to Alipore. In 1834, the district was divided into two districts namely Alipore and Barasat, but subsequently these were again united.After independence in 1983 the district was splited into two parts-North 24 Parganas (24 PGS N) and South 24 Parganas (24 PGS S). Therefore in the year 1987 North 24 Parganas came into existence as a separate district.
Geographically, the district lies at 22°71' N latitude, 88°71' E longitude and 13 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 17.66% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,094 sq km. and it is boundedby Nadia onnorth,Bangladesh(KhulnaDivision) on north and east, South 24 ParganasandKolkata on south andKolkata, Howrah andHoogly on west. The climate of the district is tropical, like the rest of the Gangetic West Bengal. During the winter the climate of the district remains dry whereas during summer there is humid. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1638.4 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-divisions namely Barrackpore, Barasat Sadar,Basirhat, Bangaon and Bidhannagar. The district is divided into 28 Assembly constituencies. But as per the order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of thedelimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district will be divided into 33 Assembly constituencies. Moreover, the district comprises 107 towns and 1,527 villages. The administrative language in the district is Bangali.
According to 2011 census the population of the district is 1,00,09,781 including 51,19,389 are males and 48,90,392 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 955 (females per 1000 males).During the year 2001-2011 the population growth of the district was 12.04% out of which 10.36% were males and 13.85% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions of the district are Hindu and Muslim with 73.46% and 25.82% of the total population.The population density in the district is 2,445 (persons per sq. km.). According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Bengali with 88.91%.In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 1,27,485 out of which 65,833 were males and 61,652 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 55,896 out of which 31,662 were males and 24,234 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of North 24 Parganas. The foremost agricultural crops of the district are rice, jute, coconuts, potatoes, wheat and rapeseed. The Government of the district supplies fertilizer, which is one of the core factors for the effective growth of agriculture. Some of the population of North 24 Parganas draw their livelihood from the industrial sectors. The Information Technology hub ofKolkata is at this district,which is the centre of some of the distinguishedIT/ITESIndianand multinational companies. In the year 2013-14 the gross domestic product of the district was Rs 85,11,682 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 48,03,550 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs. 76,71,631 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 42,77,051 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2013-14 was Rs 66,384 at Current Price and Rs 37,010 at Constant Prices in the year 2004-2005.
The district has 3594 primary schools, 974 middle schools, 204560 high schools, 153 higher secondary schools, 237 degree colleges, 16 technical schools and colleges and 2 universities. As per 2011 the literacy rate of the district is 84.06% including 87.61% are males and 80.34% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 76,08,693 including 40,56,046 are males and 35,52,647 are females.
Mukul Roy, a well known Indian politician and a member of theRajya Sabha of Indian Parliament (20th March, 2012-21st September, 2012) was born on 17th April, 1954 at Kanchrapara in the North 24 parganas district. He is a member of All India Trinamool Congress political party. Kapil Krishna Thakur, a renowned name among the Indian politician and a member of parliament to the 16th Lok Sabha from Bangaon (Lok Sabha constituency), West Bengal was born on 13th June, 1940 in the North 24 parganas. He was a member of All India Trinamool Congress political party.
The historical monuments, temples and wildlife sanctuaries of the district allure numerous travellers from different regions every year. Adyapeath temple is a white marble temple situated at Dakshineshwar, on the banks of the Hooghly River of the district. It stands as a symbol of the unity of all religions. Baraha-Mihirer Dhipi or Khana-Mihirer Dhipi is an archeological site of the district. The place was once a significant centre of the Gupta Empire. Bibhutibhusan Wildlife Sanctuary is located at Parmadan of the district. It is named after Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay, a great writer. The sanctuary spread out over 640 hectares of forestland and it lies on the banks of Ichhamati River. Chakladham is 13 km. from Guma Railway Station of the district. There is belief that the sage Loknath was born at the place. Loknath Mandir is the identity of the place. Dakshineshwar, a pilgrim town, is located on the banks of the Hooghly River. Chandraketugarh is an archeological site, located on the banks of the Vidyadhari River, about 35 km. north-east of Kolkata of the district.The age of the port-city is equal to the age of Mohenjadaro, was discovered in the year 1955.