The district is named after the two principal rivers, the Kurung and the Kumey which flows through it. As per the myth, the Kurung and the Kumey rivers were two sisters and then at the time of their marriage age Kurung eloped without taking prior permission from her parents whereas Kumey got married according to the wishes of her parents. Thus it is believed that the Kurung flows with a violent roar and ashy in colour as her parents shouted and threw ashes after her while the Kumey flows very silently and crystal clear in colour. In the year 1914 the territory occupied by the present district became a part of the North East Frontier Tracts. Later in 1954, it became a part of the Subansiri Frontier Division and after sometime renamed as Lower Subansiri district. On 1st April 2001, this region was emerged a separate district by bifurcating Lower Subansiri district.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 6,590 sq. km. area and occupies the rank 5th in State and 146th in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 27090'N latitude, 93035'E longitude and 1080 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 87.66% forest area of total geographical area. It is surrounded by the China in the North, Upper Subansiri District, Lower Subansiri District in the South, Papum Pare District in the East and East Kameng District in the West. The climate of the district remains fairly cold in winter and extremely hot in summer. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season.
Administratively, the district is divided into 14 sub-districts, 1 town and 736 villages. English is its administrative language. The district came into existence in 1st April, 2000. It has administrative headquarters located at Koloriang which is situated at the distance of 250 kms from the state capital. There are total 3 sub-divisions in the district namely Nyapin, Koloriang and Damin. It has two legislative assembly constituencies such as Nyapin, and Koloriang. All of these are the part of Arunachal West Lok Sabha constituency.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 15,962 households with a total population of 92,076 comprising 45,318 are males and 46,758 are females which leads it to rank 7th in the state and 617th in India. The density of population of the district is 14 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 1032 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 983 (females per 1000 males). The schedule tribe population of the district is recorded as 90,764 including 44,459 are males and 46,305 are females. The percentage of Schedule Tribe is 9.54%. As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of the region is Christian at 55.59% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period of 2001-2011 was 116.56% including 114.60% were males and 118.49% were females. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Nissi/Dafl and Rai with 96.06% and 2.10%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 1,943 including 916 were males and 1,027 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 51 including 35 were males and 16 were females.
Economically, paddy, wheat, maize, millet, pulses, large cardamom, black pepper are mainly grown here. Apple, walnut, kiwi, citrus, pineapple, banana are the major horticultural products available here. The district is considered as one of the most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Region Grant Fund.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the district has a literacy rate of 48.75% including 55.12% are males and 42.64% are females. The total population of literate people is 36,606 comprising 20,258 are males and 16,348 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 55,470 comprising 25,060 are males and 30,410 are females. The district is fortunate enough to have several nursing Colleges, MBA Colleges, Marine Colleges, Finance Management Institutes, spiritual and Theology institutes, vocational studies Colleges, etc. There are also a number of primary and higher schools.
Takam Sanjoy belongs to the Indian National Congress. He is an Indian politician and Member of Parliament as well. In the year 2009, he was the part of the 15th Indian Lok Sabha.
The district has famous places to visit Koloriang. The district has very beautiful and cool environment. Himalayan is near to it. It is full of natural beauty and greenery. Koloriang is a hilly town in Kurung Kumey district with the surrounding of mountains. It lies at the bank of Kurung River. It is the home of Bengia, Chera, Nangram, Chello, Riya, Yumlam clans of Nyishi communities. People are very traditional. Longte is the festival, celebrated here every year. In this festival people worship different God and Goddess and offer their prayer for prosperity, happiness and protection.