From the very beginning, Tirap has been inhabited by ancestors of the indigenous tribes. During the reign of the Ahoms, the Nocte tribe came and settle in this place in the 16th century. Later Japanese troops attacked and then occupied the region for a brief period in the year 1945 until the Japanese Empire collapsed. After their downfall Suman Gope came into the seat of power. Of late, Tirap has also been a major target for the NSCN, a Naga rebel group who aims for formation of the Greater Nagaland, by using their military force. On 14th November, 1987 Tirap was bifurcated to create the new Changlang district. Again in 2013 Tirap was split to create the Longding district.
Rita Chowdhury is a famous poet, novelist. She has received Sahitya Akademi Award in the field of Assamese literature. Presently, she is an associate Professor in Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam. She is also serving as the Director of National Book Trust, India.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 9,129 sq. km. and occupies the rank 1st in State and 73rd in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 26099'N latitude, 95054'E longitude and 1278 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 78.79% forest area of total geographical area. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1331.3 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administratively, the district is divided into 11 sub-districts, 3 towns and 190 villages. English is its administrative language. It has administrative headquarters located at Khonsa Town, situated at the distance of 322 kms from the state capital. There are total 4 legislative assembly constituencies in this district namely Namsang, Khonsa East, Khonsa-West, Borduria-Bogapani. All of these are the part of Arunachal East Lok Sabha constituency.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 19,485 households with a total population of 1,11,975 comprising 57,604 are males and 54,371 are females which leads it to rank 5th in the state and 613 in India. The density of population of the district is 12 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 944 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 961 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region is Christian with 74.45% and Hindu with 18.47% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period of 2001-2011 was 11.61% including 9.64% were males and 13.77% were females. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Wancho and Nocte with 50.84% and 23.85%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 6,931 out of which 3,433 were males and 3,498 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 412 out of which 357 were males and 55 were females.
The district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during 2007-08 was Rs. 31,418 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 20,789 lakh at Constant Prices during 1999-2000. The NDDP or Net District Domestic Product during 2007-08 was Rs. 24,590 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 18,670 lakh at Constant Prices during 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during 2007-08 was Rs. 22,705 at Current Price and Rs. 1,083 at Constant Prices during 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the district has a literacy rate of 52.19% including 61.87% are males and 41.89% are females. The total population of literate people is 47,974 persons comprising 29,313 are males and 18,661 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 64,001 comprising 28,291 are males and 35,710 are females. Ramakrishna Mission School is playing a major role to improve the education system in Tirap.
Wangcha Rajkumar was an Indian Politician from Arunachal Pradesh. He died in 2007. Yumsem Matey is a politician belongs to Indian National congress. He is the MLA from Khonsa West in the district. He has served as District Adult Education Officer (DAEO). At present, he is a member of the Bharatiya Janta Party.
The district has several famous historical and religious places to visit. These places are a scenic view of Khonsa, Tirathjo River, a waterfall near Longding, Namchik-Tirap River valley, Namsang-Dirak River valley and Tissa River-valley.