Historically, the West Kameng district is the home of several tribes. TM A.Lamaism got a strong foothold among the tribal groups as early as in the 7th century, where the Kachen Lama built the Lhagyala Gompa in Morshing. Once, it was under the control of feudals like the chiefs of Miji and the Aka which can be very well proved by the fact that ruined fortresses like those in the place of Bhalukpong constructed in the 10th to 12th century and the Dirang fort, which was constructed in the 17th century. When the British came to this place, they named the entire area as the North-East Frontier Agency. Then in 1919 they renamed it as the Balipara Frontier tract, with its administrative headquarters located at Charduar in Assam. Later, in the year 1946 the district was separated from Balipara and become popular as the Sela Sub-Agency which after sometime, renamed as the Kameng Frontier Division. After India got its independence in 1947, the name of Sela Sub-Agency was changed to the Kameng Frontier Division. Its headquarters were after sometime shifted to Bomdila in the year 1954. The Kameng Frontier Division was renamed as the Kameng District. But due to some political reasons, the Kameng district was divided into two parts East Kameng and West Kameng on 1st June, 1980.
Ngawang Tashi Bapu or Lama Tashi is a multi-phonic chanter and also famous as singing monk. He has served as the former Principal Chant Master of the Dalai Lama's Drepung Loseling Monastery. He also gave performance in Carnegie Hall in New York City twice. He was nominated for the 2006 Grammy Awards in the category of the Best Traditional World Music category.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 4,662 sq. km. and occupies the rank 9th in State and 238th in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 27027'N latitude, 92040'E longitude and 1734 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 88.56% forest area of total geographical area. The district is bounded by Tibet in the North Tawang District in the North West, Sonitpur District and Darrang District, Assam in the South, East Kameng District in the East and Bhutan in the West. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Kameng, Tenga, Bichom, Gacham, Norgum, Dirang, Chu and Jamiri. The highest peak in the district and also in the state is Kangte. Like East Kameng, the West Kameng district also experiences an arid tundra or a cool temperate climate in its northern part. Here snow fall occurs from the mid-November to February. Snow can be clearly seen in Khupi, Bomdilla, Nechiphu. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2015.3 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administratively, the district is divided into 3 town and 284 villages. English is its administrative language. The district came into existence on 1st June, 1980. It has administrative headquarters located at Bomdila Town, situated at the distance of 276 kms from the State Capital. The district has mainly three subdivisions such as Thrizino, Rupa and Bomdila which are further divided into 12 administrative circles namely Dirang, Bomdila, Kalaktang, Balemu, Bhalukpong, Jameri, Sinchung, Nafra, Thrizino, Rupa, Thembang and Shergaon. There are 4 developmental blocks in the district are Dirang, Kalaktang, Nafra-Buragaon, and Thrizino. The district comprises 4 legislative assembly constituencies likewise Dirang, Kalaktang, Thrizino-Buragaon and Bomdila. All of these are the part of Arunachal West Lok Sabha constituency.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 16,405 households with a total population of 83,947 comprising 46,155 are males, and 37,792 are females which leads it to rank 8th in the state and 621 in India. The density of population of the district is 18 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 819 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 973 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 37.24% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period 2001-2011 was 12.53% including 8.49 % were males and 17.89% were females. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Bhotia and Nepali with 29.87% and 17.07%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 5,284 out of which 2,564 were males and 2,720 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 199 out of which 143 were males and 56 were females.
Economically, the district is dependent on agricultural sector. More than half of the populations are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, millet, cauliflower, potato, tomato, beans, carrots, green vegetables, etc. Native of the district also earns their extra income from some horticulture products like apples, oranges, pomegranates, pine apples, walnuts, kiwis, plums, pears. The district is scantily industrialized but it has some small scale industries of handicraft, sericulture, pine oil, wine and carpentry products. The district is rich in mineral resources such as coal, copper ore, glass sand, marble and dolomite. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during 2007-08 was Rs. 20,539 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 26,716 lakh at Constant Prices during 1999-2000. The NDDP or Net District Domestic Product during 2007-08 was Rs. 31,409 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 24,076 lakh at Constant Prices during 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during 2007-08 was Rs. 38,777 at Current Price and Rs. 810 at Constant Prices during 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 67.07% including 73.45% are males and 59.05% are females. The total literate population in the district is 48,492 out of which 29,566 are males and 18,926 are females. The total number of illiterates in the district is 35,455 out of which 16,589 are males and 18,866 are females. Kendriya Vidyalaya, Government Higher Secondary School, Vivekananda Kendriya Vidyalaya, Army School and District Institute of Education & Training (DIET) are some of the most reputed educational institutions in the district.
Kiren Rijiju, a veteran Indian politician and a member of the Bharatiya Janata party is currently serving as the Union Minister of State for Home Affairs of India. He has also elected as the member of 14th, 15th and 16th Lok Sabha. Kumsi Sidisow is the member of the Indian National Congress party from Arunachal Pradesh. He was the Member of Legislative Assembly of Arunachal Pradesh from the 6-Thrizino-Buragaon (ST) in 2014 assembly election. Phurpa Tsering, a prominent Indian politician who served as the president of the Dirang Bloc Congress Committee (2001-2003) and also served as the President of West Kameng District Youth Congress (2003-2005) was born in the district. In 2007-2008, he was appointed as the chairman of the Zilla Parishad.
The district has some historical and religious places which are not only famous within the country but also in the world. Some of the notable places of interest in the district are Bhalukpong, Lagela Gompa at Morshing, Rupa Caves, Shergaon, Hot Spring at Dirang, Shangti, Tippi Orchid Centre, Upper Doogjar at Rupa, Sela & Sange, Sela Pass, Nechiphu (Zero Point), Jamiri, Morshing, Dirang Fort, Ruins of Bhalukpong, Ruins of Dimachung-Betali and many more.