Though the history of the region is not so clear yet its local believes that the place was under the rule of the Dom dynasty in the mid of 18th century. The founder of the present Jashpur district called Sujan Rai defeated and killed the last Dom ruler named Raibhan. Present day’s Jashpur Royal family belongs to that dynasty. When there was the rule of Mudhaji Bhonsle in the year 1818, Jashpur State went under Sarguja State in order to make its administration efficient. However, Jashpur was included as a princely state till 1950 among the Chhotanagpur states, administered by the Bengal Government. This provision was continued till 1947-48. Jashpur was a significant part of Chhotanagpur commissionery from 1948 to 10th October, 1956. On 1st November, 1956 when Madhya Pradesh was organized as a new State under union of India, at that time Jashpur became a part of it. In this way a great journey was covered by this place and finally in the year 1998, Jashpur was declared as a separate district. After the formation of Chhattisgarh as a separate state, Jashpur became a part of it.
Geographically, the district has a total 5,838 sq km. area and occupies the rank 13th in State and 181st in India on the basis of this size. It lies at 22°89'N latitude, 84°14'E longitude and 753 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 36.29% forest area of total geographical area. It is divided into two parts namely the Northern part and Southern part. The northern part is the hilly belt. It is also called the Upper Ghat. The name of the Southern part is Nichghat. It is surrounded by the border of Jharkhand and Odisha. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year except for the bitter winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1397.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 8 sub-districts, 5 towns and 755 villages. Hindi is its official language. The district of Jashpur came into existence on the 25th May, 1998 in the state of Chhattisgarh with an allotted district code of 402. Its district headquarters is located at Jashpur, situated at a distance of 427 km. from the state capital.
Demographically, according to 2011 census, the district has a total number of 1,90,527 households with a total of 8,51,669 including 4,24,747 are males and 4,26,922 are females. The density of population of the district is 146 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 1005 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 980 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region are Hindu and Christian with 73.91% and 22.26% of the total population. The population growth rate in the district during the period 2001-2011 was 14.60% out of which 14.27% were males and 14.93% were females. According to 2011 census, the percentage of the principal languages of the region are Hindi at 66.07% and Kurukh/Oraonat at 27.57%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 16,421 out of which 8,461 were males and 7,956 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,399 out of which 3,866 were males and 2,533 were females.
Economically, the district is primarily dependent on the agriculture. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 1,53,621 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,07,495 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP, or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 1,36,549 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 94,947 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at Factor Cost during the period 2006-07 was Rs.17,033 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,017 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate is 67.92% including 77.32% are males and 58.61% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 4,95,415 including 2,80,656 are males and 2,14,759 are females. There are a number of primary, secondary and higher secondary schools. Graduation colleges are also available here.
Narhari Prasad Sai of was the member of the 6th Lok Sabha, elected from Raigarh. He served as a Minister of State for Communication in the Morarji Desai period.
The district has a number of famous historical and religious places to visit. The name of these places are Kotebira Eb River, Rajpuri Water Fall, Kailash Gupha Cave, Danpuri Waterfall, Rani Dah Waterfall, Bhringraj Waterfall, Cathedral Mahagirja Ghar Kunkuri, Damera, Khuriarani Cave, Snake Park, Sograh Aghor Asram, Civilians in Jashpur Nagar District, Badalkhol Abhyaran, Gullu Waterfall, Churi Waterfall, Rani Jhoola, Bane Waterfall, Hara Deepa, Loro Ghatee, and Bel Mahadev. During 2018, there were 53,529 domestic tourists who visited the above places. Kotebira Eb River is a very pleasant looking river with rocks. Rajpuri water fall is very attractive water fall and picnic spot. It has natural beauty. Kailash Gupha is located in mountain. Fountains and plantains enhance its beauty. It is the second Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya in our country. Danpuri Waterfall is situated in the middle of forest.