In the history Rajnandgaon was popularly known as Nandgram. A dynasty of Hindu caretakers or mahants named Vaishnav and Gond rajas or chiefs ruled the region for a definite period of time. It was also ruled by Somvanshis, Kalchuris and Marathas during different periods of time. It was founded by a religious celibate in the end of the 18th century, who ruled here until 1879. After that it became the princely state during the British period. On 26th January, 1973, the place of Rajnandgaon was emerged as a separate district after its separation from the Durg district. The Palaces present in the town of Rajnandgaon depicts its own glorious story of the rulers, their society and culture during that era. Later the Kawardha District was bifurcated from the district on 1st July, 1998. The District Rajnandgaon is in the heart of the Chhattisgarh state.
A number of famous persons from different fields belong to the district. Govind Ram Nirmalkar (1935-2014) was an Indian actor and folk theatre artist. He has great contributions to the Nacha folk theatre of Chhattisgarh. He is the recipient of Padma Shri, in 2009 and Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 2012. Pukhraj Bafna is an Indian pediatrician and adolescent health consultant. He has contributed for tribal child and adolescent health. He has conducted over 500 child health camps and has supported 149 orphaned children. He was awarded with Padma Shri in 2011, C. T. Thakkar Award of the Indian Medical Association in 1978, the Becon International Award in 1986, Mahaveer Mahatma Award from the Times of India group and the Academic Excellence Award from the Indian Academy of Pediatrics, both in 2004.
Geographically, the district has a total 8,070 sq km. area and occupies the ranks 8th in State and 98th in India on the basics of this size. It lies at 21010'N latitude, 81003'E longitude and 307 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 31.41% forest area of total geographical area. it is bounded by Kabirdham district in the North, Durg district in the East, Bastar district in the South, Gadchiroli and Bhandara districts of Maharashtra state and Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh state in the West. The climate of the district remains extremely hot and humid in the summers. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 908.7 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 9 sub-districts, 8 towns and 1,653 villages. Hindi is its official language. The district of Rajnandgaon came into existence on 26th January, 1973 in the state of Chhattisgarh with its administrative headquarters located at Rajnandgaon, situated at a distance of 73 km. from the state capital.
Demographically, according to 2011 census, the district is home to a total number of 3,15,535 households with a total of 15,37,133 including 7,62,855 are males and 7,74,278 are females. The density of population of the district is 190 (persons per sq km). The sex ratio is pegged at 1015 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 986 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the percentage of the major religion practiced by the people of this region is Hindu with 91.06% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period 2001-2011 was 19.79% including 20.26% were males and 19.32% were females. According to 2011 census, the percentage of the principal language of the region is Hindi with 94.09%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 32,459 including 16,003 were males and 16,112 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 10,875 including 5,847 were males and 4,930 were females.
Economically, the district is dependent on agriculture primarily. Dairy, Poultry and fishery are the other main source of income for the people of the district. A number of small and medium scale industries are available in the district. The district is rich in the deposit of limestone. Mining is also done here on a large scale. It has several industries which are related to agro, water purification, cotton textile, jute, wooden paper, etc. Chemical industries can also be founded here namely LNS Indus Ltd., Rukahmani Metal and Gaises and Minwool Racks Fiwer Ltd. etc. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 3,33,206 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 2,22,852 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP, or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 2,99,164 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,98,626 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 20,984 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 14,257 lakh at Constant Prices during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate is 75.96% including 85.4% were males and 66.7% were females. The total literate population of the district is 10,08,379 out of which 5,61,355 are males and 4,47,024 are females. There are a number of primary, secondary and higher secondary schools as well as some graduation college.
Madhusudan Yadav is a famous political personality from the district. He was a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). He represented the Rajnandgaon constituency of Chhattisgarh in the 15th Lok Sabha of India.
During the year 2018, there were 250 foreign tourists and 39,47,332 domestic tourists who visited the historical and religious place of the district. Maa Bambleshwari is very attractive and famous tourist place of the district. It is located on a hilltop. It is called Badi Bambleshwari. Another temple is called the Chhotti Bambleshwari which is situated at ground level. People enlighten Jyoti Kalash during Navaratris here.