Raipur district is a district of Chhattisgarh state with its administrative headquarters located at Raipur city. The district has a great historical as well as archaeological importance. Earlier it was a part of southern Kosal and also a part of the Maurya Empire. The region was ruled by many notable dynasties during different periods of time such as Haihaya Dynasty, Satawahana kings, Sarabhpuri kings, Nala kings, Somavanshi kings and Kalachuri dynasty. From the very beginning, Raipur city had been the capital of the Haihaya Kings and from there they use to control the traditional forts of the Chhattisgarh for a specific period of time. The rule of Satawahana Kings in this region was started after the Haihaya Kings and last till the 2nd-3rd century AD. Then in the 4th century AD the king named Samudragupta occupied this region and ruled it with his full power till 5th-6th century AD. After sometime this area went into the hands of Sarabhpuri Kings followed by Nala kings and then by Somavanshi kings. Sometimes it is believed that the Raipur city was established a king called Ramachandra of Kalachuri dynasty and later he made it the capital of his kingdom. But some people believe that Raipur was founded by Brahmdeo Rai, the son of King Ramachandra. So the city was named as Raipur after the name of Brahmdeo Rai. But with the death of king Amarsingh Deo the decline of this dynasty’s rule was started. With the death of Raghuji the III, the British rule was started in this place and Raipur as a separate district came into existence in the year 1854. When India got its independence, the district was the part of the Central Provinces and Berar.
Chandrashekhar Shankar Dharmadhikari, an eminent Indian independence movement activist, a lawyer, a judge and an author was born on 20th November, 1927 in the Raipur district. He was served as the acting chief justice of Bombay High Court. He was also honoured by the award Padma Bhushan in 2003. Habib Tanvir, one of the most admired Indian Urdu, Hindi playwrights, a theatre director, poet and actor was born on 1st September, 1923 in Raipur. During his lifetime he was honoured by many notable awards such as Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1969, Padma Shri in 1983, Kalidas Samman 1990, Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship in 1996, and the Padma Bhushan in 2002.
Geographically, the district lies at 21025'N latitude, 81063'E longitude and 298 m Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 29.31% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 12,383 sq km. and it is bounded by Bilaspur district on the north, Bastar district and Odisha state on the south, Raigarh district and Odisha state on the east and Durg district on the west. The climate of the district is characterized as tropical wet and dry climate. Its summers are extremely hot and most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1384.7 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 13 tehsils and 15 revenue blocks. Moreover, there are 2 Lok Sabha and 13 Assembly constituencies in the district. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 40,63,872 out of which 20,48,186 are males and 20,15,686 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 984 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 34.70% including 34.40% were males and 35.01% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 95.51% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 89.69%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 66,252 including 32,538 were males and 32,485 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 19,588 including 11,804 were males and 7,486 were females.
In India, Raipur has the largest steel market. The economy of the Raipur is based on agriculture to some extent. The chief agricultural crops in the district are paddy, wheat, pulses, udad, lakh tiwara, peas, soyabean, groundnut, etc. Industrially also the district is well developed. It is an abode of some vital industries such as Ultra Tech Ltd, Century Cement Pvt. Ltd, Modi Rubber Ltd, Dinesh Cement, Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd, Tata Iron and Steel Co. Ltd, Singhaniya Cement, Raipur Alloys and Steel Ltd, Rajendra Steel Ltd, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries. In the year 2006-2007 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 11,74,350 lakh at current price and Rs. 7,83,364 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 10,50,432 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,94,222 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2006-07 Rs. 31,105 at current price and Rs. 33,770 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district has provides a platform for higher education. Some of its reputed educational institutions include Pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla University, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Hidayatullah National Law University, DISHA Institute of Management and Technology, Raipur Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology, New Government Engineering College, Institute of Pharmacy, Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institution, Vindhya Institute of Technology and Science, Columbia College of Pharmacy, Gurukul Institute, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 75.56% out of which 85.24% are males and 65.75% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 26,29,749 including 14,93,158 are males and 11,36,591 are females.
Urmila Singh, a distinguished Indian politician and the Governor of Himachal Pradesh (2010 to 2015) was born on 6th August, 1946 at Phingeshwar in the Raipur district. She served as a Minister of State with the portfolio of Dairy Development (1993-95) and as a Cabinet Minister with the portfolio of Social Welfare and Tribal Welfare (1998-2003). She is a member of Indian National Congress. Jyoti Dhurve, an illustrious Indian politician and a member of 15th Lok Sabha in which she represents the Betul Lok Sabha constituency (Madhya Pradesh) was born on 2nd June, 1966 in Raipur. She is a member of Bhartiya Janata Party.
The district has a variety of tourist places which allures numerous travellers from across the world. Rajim often called as Prayag, a holy place situated 48 km. from Raipur is the meeting point of the Mahanadi, Pairi and Sondur rivers. Lord Kuleshwar temple of 14-15 century is the identity of the place. Rajivlochan temple and Rajeshwar temple are the other prominent temples of the place. Champaranya, a pious place located 36 km. from Raipur is the birth place of the Ballabhacharya guru of Vaishnav dharm. It is a place full of mesmerising natural sceneries. Barnawapara, a forest area and it has a wildlife sanctuary. It is a perfect destination for animal lovers. Arang, a place with historical importance is located 36 km. from Raipur. Some famous temples of 11-12th century are still present in the place-Bhandadeval temple, Baghdeval temple, Mahamaya temple and Bhandadeval temple depicts the marvellous architecture of that period. Other renowned centres of attraction of the district include Seetanadi, Nandanvan, Sihava, Girodhpuri, Ravishankar dam, Lakshman temple, Sirpur, etc. In the year 2018, there were 23,30,769 domestic tourists and 13,464 foreign tourists who visited the above places.