Aizawl district is a district of Mizoram state with its administrative headquarters located at Aizawl city. The district got its name from its headquarters city, Aizawl. The term Aizawl is derived from the two terms of the Mizo language i.e. ai, also popularly known as aidu, means a species of turmeric and second term zawl means plain or field. It also believes that the name of its headquarters city, Aizawl is probably taken from the abundance of the aidu in this region earlier. Aizawl was emerged as a separate district in the map of Mizoram state in the year 1976.
Geographically, the district lies at 23°73' N latitude and 92°72' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 1132 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 85.71% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,576 sq km. and it is bounded by Kolasib district on North, Serchhip district on the South, Champhai district on the East and Mamit district on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Chite, Tlawng, Tuirial, Tuirini, Tuivawl, Tuivai and Mat. The climate of the district can be characterised as humid subtropical climate. Its climate of the district remains mild throughout the year. The actual rainfall in the district was 1753.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 blocks namely Aibawk, Darlawn, Phullen, Thingsulthliah and Tlangnuam. Moreover, it comprises 4 towns and 104 villages. The administrative language in the district is Mizo.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 4,00,309 out of which 1,99,270 are males and 2,01,039 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1009 (females for every 1000 males). In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 22.92% including 19.41% are males and 26.60% are females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 94.71% of the total population. The population density in the district is 112 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal language in the district is Lushai/Mizo with 90.31%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 8,795 out of which 4,609 were males and 4,186 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,124 out of which 1,991 were males and 1,133 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sectors. Most of population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are sugarcane, rice, mustard, soybean, turmeric, lemon, ginger, pepper, banana, papaya, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. Since, the district is scantily industrialised hence in the name of industry it has only a few small scale industries of handicrafts. To some extent, the economy of Aizawl is basically sustained by government services as it is capital of Mizoram state. The major banks are also present in the Aizawl city. In the year 2005-06 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,18,745 lakhs at current price and Rs. 93,150 lakhs at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 1,04,560 lakh at current price and Rs. 82,155 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 27,625 at current price and Rs. 3,785 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. It has both state and private schools. The administration power of the Parochial schools of the district is in the hands of Baptist Church of Mizoram, the Presbyterian Church of India (Synod), several Roman Catholic religious orders (St. Paul's, run by the Gabrielite Brothers) and the Seventh-day Adventists (Helen Lowry). Pachhunga University College founded in 1958 is one of the earliest colleges in the district. All the colleges in the district are affiliated to the Mizoram University, established in 2001. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 97.89% including 98.11% are males and 97.67% are females. The literate population in the district is 3,40,595 out of which 1,69,547 are males and 1,71,048 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 59,714 out of which 29,723 are males and 29,991 are females.
Dr. H. T. Sangliana, a veteran India politician and a member of the 14th Lok Sabha from the Bangalore North constituency of Karnataka was born on 1st June, 1942 at Aizawl city. At the very beginning of his political career he was a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) but later he took resignation from the BJP and joined the Indian National Congress.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Bara Bazar, the main shopping centre of Aizawl in Dawrpui Veng locality is the best place to buy some imported items, which are imported from China through the Myanmar border area. A renowned shopping mall in this place is Millennium Centre. Mizoram State Museum, located in the centre of the town at Zarkawt depicts the uniqueness in Mizo traditions, culture and history. Durtlang Hills, situated on the northern side of Aizawl is a perfect place for nature’s lovers. Hmuifang, situated at a distance of 50 km. from Aizawl is the mountain that covers with virgin forests reserved since the Mizo Chief's time. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Berawtlang Tourist Complex, Baktawng Village, Solomon's Temple, Khuangchera Puk and many more.