Lawngtlai district is a district of the Mizoram state with its administrative headquarters located at Lawngtlai town. The physical feature of the district is mainly hilly except the long narrow strip of low-lying area along with the western portion of the Chamdur Valley. In the late 19th century before the entrance of the British, the present region of the Lawngtlai district was ruled by local chieftains, whose area of control were generally a single village or a small group of villages. In its history a notable incident was happened in 1888, when the chief of the Fungkah village attacked a British surveying team and killed four men including a Lt. Stewart. So, in the following year the British sent in a punitive expedition to maintain peace in the area. In that way Lawngtlai district was included into the South Lushai Hills and later administered by the lieutenant governor of Bengal. Under the Government of India Act, the Lushai Hills, along with some of the other hill districts were announced as "Backward Tracts". The rule of the local chieftains was ended after the creation of the Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council in 1952. The Union Territory of Mizoram was created in the year 1972 and the area became a part of Mizoram. Lawngtlai was emerged as a separate district in the map of Mizoram state in the year 1999.
Geographically, the district lies at 22053' N latitude and 92090' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 1040 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 86.04% forest area of total geographical area. The altitude in the district is 1040 m. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,557 sq km. and it is bounded by Lunglei district on the North, Myanmar on the South, Saiha district on the East and Bangladesh on the West. The main rivers in the district are Kaladan, Tuichong, Chhimtuipui, Ngengpui, Chawngte and Tuiphal. The climate of the district can be characterised as moderate climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 rural development blocks namely Lawngtlai, Bungtlang, Chawngte and Sangau. Moreover, it comprises 1 town and 168 villages. The administrative language in the district is Mizo.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 1,17,894 out of which 60,599 are males and 57,295 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 945 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 60.14% including 56.28% were males and 64.43% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Christian and Buddhist with 54.19% and 43.72% of the total population. The population density in the district is 46 (persons per Sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Bengali, Pawi and Lushai/Mizo with 39.95%, 20.96% and 23.24%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 2,989 out of which 1,532 were males and 1,457 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 865 out of which 547 were males and 318 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on the agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Generally, the farmers of the district practice some traditional methods of shifting cultivation. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, sugarcane, banana, vegetables, fodder crops, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. But the district is scantily industrialised since only a few small scale industries are available here. On the other hand, a small portion of urban population is only involved in some permanent employments, likewise state government service, bank, schools and small-scale business. This is one of the two most backward districts of Mizoram state that currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Program. In the year 2005-2006 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs 19,404 lakh at Current Price and Rs 14,966 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2005-2006 the net domestic product in the district was Rs 17,128 lakh at Current Price and Rs 13,213 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2005-2006 the per capita income /NDDP, at factor cost was Rs 20,222 at Current Price and Rs 847 at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. The district has only one college named, Lawngtlai College which is affiliated to the Mizoram University. Furthermore, there are a number of public and private schools. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 65.88% out of which 74.12% are males and 57.12% are females. The literate population in the district is 62,861 including 36,444 are males and 26,417 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 55,033 including 24,155 are males and 30,878 are females.
L. Ruala, an eminent Indian politician and a member of the 16th Lok Sabha was born on 25th December, 1935 at Chawnhu in the Lawngtlai district. He was also elected member in the previous term during the year 2009-2014. He is a member of the Indian National Congress.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Chawngte, a small but beautiful village is located almost 250 km. away from the state capital, Aizawl i.e. the south-western side of the Lawngtlai district. This village is blessed with a number of mesmerising natural sceneries. Mullianpui, a small village very close to the Mother Nature is situated on the main trekking route from Uiphum to Tuiehong. The village is a significant place of the district since it is very close to Indo-Bangladesh International border and Sinemon Wildlife Sanctuary. Sinemon Wildlife Sanctuary, located on the southernmost part of Mizoram in the district of Lawngtlai covers an area of about 143 sq. km. It has a great variety of fauna such as leopard, wild boar, barking deer, elephant, tiger and many more. It is a perfect destination for animal’s lovers. Another two most marvellous sanctuaries located in the district are Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary and Lohawka Sanctuary.