Saiha district is a district of the state of Mizoram with its administrative headquarters located at Saiha town. The name of the district is derived from the two local Mara language words likewise, the first term ‘Sai’ means elephant and the second term ‘ha’ means tooth. Therefore, both the words together create the term Saiha which means the elephant tooth. Natives of the district believe that in the old days a large number of elephant tooth was found in this place and thus, the district got its present name, Saiha. Earlier, Saiha district was a part of Chhimtuipui district. In 1998, the Chhimtuipui district was divided into two parts equally and one part of it became the Saiha district which briefly called by the old name Chhimtuipui district. Finally, in the year 1999 Saiha was emerged as a separate district in the map of Mizoram state.
Beikhokhei Beingaichho, an eminent Indian footballer who plays primarily as a right winger for Bengaluru FC in the I-League was born on 15th August, 1990 at Saiha town.
Geographically, the district lies at 22°49' N latitude and 92°98' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 729 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 83.84% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,399 sq km. and it is bounded by Lunglei district on the North and North West, Myanmar on the Sout and East and Lawngtlai district on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Kolodine, Pala, Tisih, Pitlao, Ka-aw, Salyu, Polyue, etc. The climate of the district remains mild throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 2423.9 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 blocks namely Saiha also known as Siaha, Sangau and Tuipang. Moreover, it comprises 1 town and 61 villages. Tipa, Sangyu, Phura and Bualpui NG are some of the prominent towns in the Siaha district. The administrative language in the district is Mizo.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 56,574 out of which 28,594 are males and 27,980 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 979 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 932 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -7.34% including -8.48% were males and -6.15% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 97.18% of the total population. The population density in the district is 40 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Lakher, Pawi and Lushai/Mizo with 72.14%, 5.36% and 16.77%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 1,378 out of which 698 were males and 680 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 245 out of which 144 were males and 101 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, soybean, tobacco, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. In its past days it was famous for the ivory trade. But it is scantily industrialised. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Saiha as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2005-06 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 17,942 lakhs at current price and Rs. 13,877 lakhs at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 15,738 lakh at current price and Rs. 12,165 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 22,743 at current price and Rs. 692 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. The district has only one college i.e. Saiha College which is affiliated to Mizoram University. There are also a number of recognised public and private schools. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 90.01% including 92.64% are males and 87.34% are females. The literate population in the district are 42,233 out of which 21,861 are males and 20,372 are females. The illiterate population in the district are 14,341 out of which 6,733 are males and 7,608 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Palak Dil, also popularly known as Pala Tipo is located at Phura village in the district. It is also the largest lake in Mizoram. The surroundings of this place are full of mesmerising natural sceneries. Since it is situated in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot hence it is abundance of grassy environs. Palak Wildlife Sanctuary, located at a distance of 130 kms to the south west of the Saiha town is blessed with all the refreshing qualities of Mother Nature. It covers an area of across 15.50 sq. km. The Sanctuary has a wide range of species like barking deer, leopard, elephant, rhesus macaque and many more. The breeze that blows here is simply amazing. It is a perfect destination for animal’s lovers. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park, Saiha, Saikao, Mt. Mawma, etc.