Champhai district is a district of the Mizoram state with its administrative headquarters located at Champhai town. The history of Champhai district witnessed that during different periods of time the place was ruled by different rulers. Finally, the British came to India and started to rule all the parts of India. It was the Fenngo clan, the first group of the British government to migrate from east to Mizoram state and controlled over it from 1500-1800 AD. The village of the Mizoram where the different clans settled were progressively named after these clans such as Lawihmun, Chawnchhim, etc. Several areas of the Mizoram state including the Champhai district depicts the ancient cultural heritage of the Mizo people very clearly. In 1864 Vanhnuailiana, a person with his companions came to this district and became the chief of the Lawihmun. In the same time his mother was declared as the chief of Chawnchhim. But in the year 1871 after the demise of Vanhnuailiana, his wife Rolianpuii was announced as the chief of Chawnchhim and started to rule over it. At last after India got its independence, the place of Champhai was emerged as a separate district on the map of Mizoram state in the year 1999.
Geographically, the district lies at 23046' N latitude and 93033' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 1678 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 78.11% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,185 3,185 sq km. and it is bounded by Churachandpur district of the Manipur on the North, Myanmar on the South and East and Aizawl district and Serchhip district on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Tiau Lui and Fiara Tui. Major towns in the district are Ngopa, Khawhai and Khawzawl. The popular Rihdil Lake is situated at a distance of about 50 kms from the Champhai town. The climate of the district can be characterised as moderate climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 178.0 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 Rural Development blocks namely Champhai, Khawbung, Khawzawl, and Ngopa. Moreover, it comprises 4 towns and 90 villages. The administrative language in the district is Mizo.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 1,25,745 including 63,388 are males and 62,357 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 984 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 16.01% out of which 13.69% were males and 18.47% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Christian with 98.17% of the total population. The population density in the district is 39 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Lushai/Mizo with 84.74% and Paite with 13.90%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 1,790 out of which 919 were males and 871 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 617 out of which 384 were males and 233 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are cashew nut, banana, papaya, pineapple, citrus, guava, gooseberry, apple, peach, pear, plum, tapioca, sweet potato, drum stick, tomato, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. Champhai Valley is popularly known as the Rice Bowl of Mizoram since the place has the highest rice production in the state of Mizoram. Champhai is the main trading centre of Mizoram with goods like clothes, silverware and electronics imported from Myanmar through the trading post in Zokhawthar. But the district is scantily industrialised. In the year 2005-2006 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 25,448 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 19,247 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2005-2006 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 22,560 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 17,049 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2005-06 the Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district was Rs. 18,462 at Current Price and Rs. 1,222 at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Champhai College is the one and only higher education center in the town. Bethel Mission School, located on the northern part of the town is a privately owned school that offers courses from elementary to high school. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 95.91% including 97.21% are males and 94.59% are females. The literate population in the district is 1,00,802 out of which 51,440 are males and 49,362 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 24,943 out of which 11,948 are males and 12,995 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. The Champhai valley is well-known as "The Rice bowl of Mizoram" located towards its base of the town. A chain of green hills encircle luxuriant rice fields, which add to the beauty of this place. Murlen National Park, famous as the home to a rich variety of flora and fauna is located in the district. Mura Puk, situated at a distance of 10 km. away from Champhai town at a village called Zote village has six unique and ancient caves. Rih dïl, located at a distance of 27 kms from Champhai near Zokhawthar in Myanmar is considered as the passage of the souls to the eternal abode. There is a beautiful lake around a km long and 70 m wide. Thasiama Seno Neihna, located at 86 km away from Champhai at the Vaphai village is a plateau on a rugged hillock measuring around 7.20 sq min. Fiara Tui is located about 65 km. from Champhai and has its source in the Tan Tlang Mountain. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Mizo Hlakungpui Mual, Lamsial Puk, Hnahlan, Zokhawthar, Lianchhiari Tlang, Tan Tlang and many more.