Lunglei district is a district of the Mizoram state with its administrative headquarters located at Lunglei town, situated in the south-central part of the state. Sometimes, Lunglei is spelled as Lungleh. The term Lunglei literally means 'bridge of rock' since it got its name from a bridge like rock that found in the riverine area around Nghasih, a small tributary of the Tlawng River. The headquarters town of the district i.e. Lunglei is the second largest town after the capital of the Mizoram state, Aizawl. Lunglei town was remained as the Capital of South Lushai Hill Districts for almost 10 years from 1888 till then when Aizawl became the North Hill Districts. In 1898, the two were united. Until the partition of India, the town was an important part of the state because it had a direct connection to Chittagong, one of the big cities in Bangladesh which helped Lunglei to become a notable centre of commercial and education. The place Lunglei was emerged as a separate district in the map of Mizoram state in the year 1976.
Geographically, the district lies at 22091' N latitude and 92075' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 722 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 88.67% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,536 sq km. and it is bounded by Mamit district and Aizawl district on the North, Lawngtlai district on the South, Saiha district on the South East, Myanmar on the East, Serchhip district on the North East and Bangladesh on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Tlawng and Boinu. The climate of the district remains mild throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 3103.6 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 subdivisions namely Hnahthial, Lunglei and Tlabung. Moreover, it comprises 4 sub-districts, 3 towns and 195 villages. The district has 7 assembly constituencies namely South Tuipui, Lunglei North, Lunglei East, Lunglei West, Lunglei South, Thorang and West Tuipui. The administrative language in the district is Mizo.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 1,61,428 out of which 82,891 are males and 78,537 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 947 (females for every 1000 males) and child ratio of 963 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 17.64% including 16.09% were males and 19.32% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 78.75% of the total population. The population density in the district is 36 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Lushai/Mizo with 72.17% and Bengali with 21.63%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 1,697 including 888 were males and 809 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 291 including 185 were males and 106 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, millets, fruits, etc. Generally, the farmers of the district practice the traditional method of shifting cultivation, which is popularly known as Jhum cultivation in India. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. The district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few cottage industries which produces handloom cloth, furniture, agricultural equipment, woven textiles, bamboo and cane work, etc. In the year 2005-2006 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 36,512 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 28,633 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2005-2006 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 32,036 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 24,961 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2005-2006 the per capita income/ NDDP, at Factor Cost is Rs. 21,188 at Current Price and Rs. 1,512 at Constant Prices in the year(1999-2000) Prices.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Lunglei Government College, J.Buana College, Lunglei Morning College, Lunglei Higher and Technical Institute of Mizoram, Mizoram Polytechnic, Lunglei Nursing College, Christian Hospital Serkawn Nursing College and many more. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 88.86% out of which 92.04% are males and 85.49% are females. The literate population in the district is 1,21,122 including 64,515 are males and 56,607 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 40,306 including 18,376 are males and 21,930 are females.
Vanlalzawma, a veteran Indian politician from Mizoram and a Member of the 13th and 14th Lok Sabha was born on 10th February, 1956 at Lunglei town. At present he is a member of the Mizo National Front. ?henphunga Sailo, an eminent Brigadier of the Indian Army and the second Chief Minister of Mizoram who served as the Chief Minister of Mizoram for two times was born on 1st January, 1922 at Melkhat/?huampui in the Lunglei district. He was the founder of the Mizoram People's Conference, one of the most illustrious political parties in Mizoram.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. The place of Lunglei is blessed with mesmerising natural sceneries. Saikuti Hall, a significant place in the district where numerous concerts and celebrations are occurs. A unique museum has also been constructed in the hall which is a great platform for the local painters to express their skill and exhibit their works. Thuamluaia Mual, the second football stadium with artificial turf in Mizoram is a perfect destination for football lovers. Some other important places of interest in the district are Zobawk Sports Academy, Kawmzawl Park, Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary and many more. Lunglei district offers the tourists an environment of metal relaxation with the rich cultural traditions of the region.