Mon district is a district of the Nagaland state with its administrative headquarters located at Mon town. It is located on the North-eastern part of the Nagaland State and till 1948; it was not under the Civil Administration. In the beginning of the 19th century, the British saw a vast piece of land lying between the administered territories of Assam and Myanmar (Burma), but at that time they were not interested to brought it under the Civil Administration. By the year 1914, the Foreign and Political Department of the Government of India announced a notification to extend the Assam Frontier Tract Regulation of 1880 to the Hills, which was generally inhabited by some tribes likewise, Abors, Mishmis, Singphos, Nagas, Khamptis, Bhutias, Akas and Daflas. Due to this extension of the aforesaid Regulation, the Government of India brought the area under some administration in 1914 and finally, the area was named as the North East Frontier Tract. Therefore, the current Mon district was also brought under the same notification and Mon as a separate district came into existence in the year 1976.
Geographically, the district lies at 26072' N latitude and 95003' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 898 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 67.35% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,786 sq km and it is bounded by Sivasagar district of Assam on the North, Tuensang district and Myanmar on the South, Myanmar on the East and Tuensang district and Mokokchung district on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Dikhu, Tizit, Tehok, Tekang, Tapi, Kaimang, Yityong and Telangsao. The climate of the district can be characterised as moderate climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1779.5 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 14 sub-districts, 2 towns and 131 villages. The administrative language in the district is English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 2,50,260 including 1,31,753 are males and 1,18,507 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 899 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -3.99% out of which -5.04% were males and -2.78% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 94.50% of the total population. The population density in the district is 140 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal language in the district is Konyak with 94.56%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 9,977 out of which 5,321 were males and 4,656 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 57 out of which 41 were males and 16 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly agrarian based. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Nothing can stop the economic development of the district if the forest resources, human resources, water resources etc. can be re-generated. The district is suffering from the saviour lack of infrastructural facilities. Recently, the trend of tea-cultivation is getting popularity among the local people. The district has plenty of gentle slopes which are favourable for developing cultivation in the region with the modern techniques. The district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few small scale industries of Wood carvings, guns, gun powders, brushes, shawls, ornaments. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Mon as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 56.99% out of which 60.94% are males and 52.58% are females. The literate population in the district is 1,19,626 including 67,432 are males and 52,194 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 1,30,634 including 64,321 are males and 66,313 are females.
W. Wangyuh, an eminent Indian politician and a member of the 14th Lok Sabha from the Nagaland constituency was born on 20th October, 1963 in the Mon district. He is a member of the Nagaland Peoples Front (NDF) political party.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Shangnyu Village, located in the district is ruled by the chief Angh. It has a very beautiful wooden monument with 8 feet in height and 12 feet in breadth that believed to be created by heavenly angels. Some humanly figures and other creatures are engraved on this monument. Memorial stones are also found in front of the Angh's palace. Chui Village (basti), a prominent village situated near the Mon town is ruled by the Angh of Chui Basti. The Angh's house in the village is one of the biggest houses in the village. There are some skulls of enemies which supposedly killed by him and also have his forebears of the earlier times. Longwa Village, another biggest village in Mon district is full of mesmerising natural sceneries. It is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. Veda Peak, highest peak of the district is approximately 70 km. east of Mon town. Tourist can enjoy a clear sight of both the rivers Brahmaputra and Chindwin on a clear day from the peak.