Peren district is the newest district of the Nagaland state with its administrative headquarters located at Peren town. Earlier it was the sub-division of the Kohima district but later it was declared as separate district in the map of Nagaland state in the year 2007. From the very beginning, Peren district is inhabited by the Zeliangs tribe who originated from Nkuilwangdi, presently resides in the Senapati district of the Manipur state. When the British rule was consolidated in Kohima and neighbouring villages in 1879, automatically the British Imperialist turned their interest towards the Zeliangs tribe resided Barail ranges, situated in the south part of the Angami country. Even within a very short period of time they were succeeded in capturing that part and also over the Zeliangs tribe. But quickly, the British Government noticed that there was a lack of proper communication between them and natives. Then the British realised that due this communication gap they would surely face hurdles in the way of colonial administration and extension of political administrative control. As a result some link roads were made to connect some small parts of Nagaland to Kohima. One of such link roads constructed was the bridle path through Khonoma via Benreu Pedi, Peletkie, Peren, Tesen to Tening outpost in the year 1885.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°51' N latitude and 93°74' E longitude. The altitude in the district is 1445 m. In the year 2021, there was a total 85.30% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,651 sq km. and it is bounded by Tamenglong district of Manipur on the South, Kohima district on the East, Dima Hasao district and Karbi Anglong district of Assam on the North West and West. The principal rivers and significant rivulets that flow through the district are Tepuiki, Mbeiki (Barak), Ntanki, Mungleu, Tesanki, Nguiki, Nkwareu, Techauki, Ngungreu, Tahaiki and Duilumreu (Tributary of Tepuiki). The highest mountain peak in the district and third highest in Nagaland is Mt. Paona, located at a height of 2500 meters. The natives of the district enjoy monsoon type of climate throughout the year. The winters of the district are cold but pleasant and its summer is warm but tolerable. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1185.0 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 7 sub-districts, 2 towns and 112 villages. The administrative language in the district is English.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 95,219 out of which 49,714 are males and 45,505 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 915 (females for every 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Christian with 90.47% of the total population. The population density in the district is 58 (persons per sq. km.). The major schedule tribe population in the district are Naga, Zeliang and Kuki with 87.72%, 81.47% and 11.41%. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 4.91% out of which 6.59% were males and 3.13 were females. As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Zeliang with 57.20%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 968 out of which 484 were males and 484 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 70 out of which 45 were males and 25 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, wheat, maize, etc. Farmers of the district earn their extra income from the horticultural products. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. But the district is scantily industrialised since it has only a few agro based industries.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Sainik School, a reputed boy’s school is located at Punglwa in the district. In 2007 it was established by the Government of India and is part of the Sainik school network. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 77.95% including 82.84% are males and 72.58% are females. The literate population in the district is 62,204 out of which 34,584 are males and 27,620 are females. The illiterate population in the district is 33,015 out of which 15,130 are males and 17,885 are females.
T. R. Zeliang, a veteran Indian politician who has been Chief Minister of Nagaland since 2014 was born on 21st February, 1952 at Mbaupungwa village in the district. He is a leader of the Nagaland People's Front. Previously, he served as a Member of Parliament, representing Nagaland in the Rajya Sabha of the Indian Parliament.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Peren district is a remote hilly area but full of lavish vegetation, marvellous greenery forests, cool and refreshing climate which made it a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. It offers mental relaxation, mesmerising natural beauty of the terrain, delightful rivers and rivulets and a wide variety of wild animals and birds to its visitors. Furthermore, the rich cultural heritage of the Zeliangs tribe including their unique festivals and dances draws many tourists every year. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Mt. Kisa at Nzauna village, caves at Puilwa village, Ntanki National Park and many more.