Tuensang district is one of the eight districts of Nagaland state with its administrative headquarters located at Tuensang town. It is situated in the easternmost part of the state of Nagaland and the place got its name from the closed situated, the district headquarters. From the very beginning, the district is inhabited by five major tribes namely Chang, Sangtam, Khiamniungan, Yimchunger, Phom and sometimes a part of Sumi. Earlier, Tuensang was totally a chaotic and large district but time to time, some districts had carved out of it likewise the present districts of Mon, Longleng and Kiphire. At that time the British had declared it as an excluded area thus, its natives had no touch with the rest of the world. After India got its independence in the year 1947, Tuensang was emerged as a separate district in the map of the Nagaland state in the year 1948. In that same year, for the first time, an administrative center was established at Tuensang. But head hunting and other primitive practices were last a long period and in fact a case of head hunting was also reported as late as October, 1963 at Panso in this district.
Geographically, the district has a total area of 2,536 sq. km. and occupies the rank 1st in State and 451st in India on the basis of the size. It lies at 26°27' N latitude, 94°83' E longitude and 1371 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 63.23% forest area of total geographical area. It is bounded by Mon in the North East, Longleng in the North, Mokokchung and Zunheboto in the West and Kiphire in the South. Mount Saramati, the highest peak of Nagaland is situated here. The principal rivers that flow through the district are Dikhu and Tizu. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1227.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 16 sub-districts, 1 town and 144 villages. English is the administrative language of the district. Tuensang town, the administrative headquarters of the district is located at the distance of 228 kms from the state capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 38,987 households with a total population of 1,96,596 comprising 1,01,933 are males and 94,663 are females which causing it to rank 4th in the state and 589th in India. The density of population of the district is 326 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 929 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 946 (females per 1000 males). The schedule caste population of the district is recorded as 7,843 including 3,915 are males and 3,928 are females. The percentage of Schedule Caste is 30.82%. The schedule tribe population of the district is recorded as 92,669 including 45,124 are males and 8,894 are females. The percentage of Schedule tribe is 62.08%. The population growth rate during the period 2001 to 2011 was 2.50% including 1.02% were males and 4.14% were females. As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Chang with 30.51%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 7,926 out of which 4,138 were males and 3,788 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 146 out of which 108 were males and 38 were females.
Economically, the district is mainly dependent on the agricultural sector. More than half of its populations are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Till today also the farmers of this place is stick to the traditional method of farming so the quality and quantity of its agricultural products is not up to the mark. In spite of all these some of its chief agricultural products are rice, millet, maize, taro, pumpkin, beans, squash, cauliflower, cabbage, soybeans, water guard, etc. It is also famous for some of its horticultural products like guava, orange, lemon, pears, plum, papaya, peach, pine apple, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue come from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. Moreover, the district is also abundant in mineral resources like coal, asbestos, limestone, pyrite, slate and oil. On the other hand, the district has a good name in the whole country for its beautiful cane works and handicrafts. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Tuensang as one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640) and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In terms of the economic angle Likhimro Hydro project, commissioned in the year 2001 is one of the most significant project in the district.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 73.08% out of which 76.31% are males and 69.59% are females. The total literate population in the district is 1,17,511 including 63,653 are males and 53,858 are female. The total illiterate population in the district is 79,085 including 38,280 are males and 40,805 are females. The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Fazl Ali College, Sao Chang College, Loyem Memorial College, 3rd Nap High Tuensang School, Akum Imlong School, Assam Rifles School, Baptist High School, Baptist Panso School, Baptist Thonoknyu School, Baptist Tuensang Village School, Baptist Thangyen School, Bethel Mission School and Bethesda School are some of the most recognised educational institutions in the district.
C. M. Chang or Chongshen Mongkosungkum Chang, a veteran Indian politician and the member of the Nagaland People's Front was born on 1st April, 1942 in the Tuensang district. He has served as the member of the 15th Lok Sabha in 2009.
The district has some historical and religious places which are renowned not only within the country but also in the world. Some of the notable places of interest in the district are Noklak, Changsangmongko, Tsadang, Longtrok, Chilise, etc. Every year a huge number of tourists from worldwide visit these centers of attraction in order to enjoy its mesmerizing natural sceneries. Noklak is a village which is famous for its handicrafts, cane work, tribal festivals and local art forms. It is the home of Khiamniungan tribe. The village of Changsangmongko is the habitat of Changsang and the Chang community. Tsadang is famous for its two ancient stones which are worshipped by locals. Longtrok village is the witness of Tsongliyangti and Chungliyangti civilizations. There are six legendary stones in which Tsongliyangti, Chungliyangti and Chungliyimti are more important. Chilise village is famous for its glorious historic past.