District Level Information of Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir)
About Jammu District (Jammu & Kashmir)

The place “Jammu” is named after Raja Jambulochan, the founder of the city and who is believed to have ruled the area in the 9th century. Historically, Jammu was the capital of Jammu Province and the winter capital of the east whereas Jammu and Kashmir enjoyed the status of princely state from 1846-1952. some excavations near Akhnoor, located 32 kms (20 mi) from Jammu city has proved that in ancient time it was a significant part of Harrappa civilization. Moreover, remains from the Maurya, Kushan, Kushanshahs and Gupta eras have also been found here during excavation. After 480 CE, the region was occupied by the Hephthalites, who use to ruled it from Kapisa and Kabul. The place was ruled as well by the Kushano-Hephthalite dynasty from 565 to 670 CE and then by the Shahi from 670 CE to the early 11th century. Even the name of Jammu is mentioned in the accounts of the campaigns of Timur. Prior to the British entrance, the area witnessed several changes of control including the invasions by Mughals and Sikhs. Like other dynasties, the Dev dynasty ruled it for a long period of 984 years i.e. from 840 CE to 1816 CE. Then came the Dogra dynasty founded by Raja Gulab Singh who finally became the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. After the partition of India also, Jammu continued as the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir state of India.

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Geographically, the district has a total 2,407 sq km. area and occupies the rank 9th in State and 466th in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 32°75'N latitude, 74°87'E longitude and 650 m altitude. In the year of 2021, there was a total 29.19% forest area of total geographical area. The climate of the district can be characterized as humid subtropical climate. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1103.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.

Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 sub-districts namely Akhnoor, Bishnah, Jammu and Ranbirsingh Pora. Moreover, it has 20 town and 780 villages. Urdu is its official language. The allotted district code is 21. It has its administrative headquarters located at Jammu town which is situated at a distance of 294 kms from the capital of the state.

Demographically, according to the 2015 census, the district has a total number of 3,02,016 households with the total population of 15,29,958 out of which 8,13,821 are males and 7,16,137 are females which is leading it to the rank 1st in the state and 326th in India. The population density of the district is 653 (persons as per sq km.). The sex ratio is considered 880 (females as per 1000 males) and child ratio is 795 (females as per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religion in the region is Hindu with 84.27% of the total population. During the period 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 13.86% including 12.92% were males and 14.94% were females. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Dogri with 70.85%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 35,258 out of which 18,871 were males and 16,387 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 10,843 out of which 6,508 were males and 4,335 were females.

Economically, several small scale industries are available here such as weaving, wooden work and embroidery etc. Tourism is a big source of income for the people of the district. The Gross Domestic Product in the district during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 4,88,099 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 3,88,835 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2003-04 was Rs. 17,435 at Current Price and Rs. 8,413 at Constant Prices in the year 1993-1994.

Education wise, according to the 2011 census, the total number of literates in the district is 11,37,135 comprising 6,41,916 are males and 4,95,219 are females. The literacy rate of the total population of the district is 83.45% including 89.08% are males and 77.13% are females. The district has many educational institutes including schools and colleges. Aastha ETT Institute, ACE Human Resource Dev Institution of Education, AMN Teachers training and Research Institute, Anuradha College of ETT, Ashoka Elementary Training Institution at Muni Kamal Public H/S, Gangyal, Ashoka Educational and Research Institution, Atman College of Education are some of the main educational institutes of Jammu district.

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The district has many famous religious and historical tourist places to visit. The Amar Mahal Palace, situated Jammu in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir has converted into a museum at present. In the 19th century it was constructed by a French architect on the lines of a French Chateau for a Dogra king called Raja Amar Singh. Then Dr. Karan Singh donated the palace to Hari-Tara charitable trust in order to use as a museum. Bahu fort and garden, located at a distance of 5 km. from the city center lies on the left bank of the Tawi River in the Jammu city. More than 3000 years ago, the fort was made by Raja Bahulochan. There is a shrine of the Hindu Goddess Kali near to the fort. Then in 19th century it was renovated by the Dogra rulers. The terraced garden in the fort is called Bagh-e-Bahu. The Raghunath Temple, situated right in the heart of the city was built in the year 1857. Though the construction of the temple was started by Maharaja Gulab Singh, founder of the Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir in 1835 AD but it was completed by his son named Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1860 AD. Peer Kho cave, situated on the bank of Tawi river is widely believed that Ramayan character Jamvant (the bear god) meditated in this cave. On the other hand the Ranbireshwar Temple, located on the Shalimar Road near the New Secretariathas twelve Shiva lingams of crystal measuring 12" to 18" and galleries with thousands of saligrams fixed on stone slabs. It was built by Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1883 AD. Vaishno Devi Mandir, a temple dedicated to the Hindu Goddess, Mata Adi Shakti is located in Katra at the Trikuta Mountains. Now a days helicopter services are also available up to Sanjichhat, which is 9.5 km.

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