An archaeological site, Burzahom located at a distance of 10 km. from Srinagar has proved the presence of neolithic and megalithic cultures in the ancient era. The name is derived from the Sanskrit word. The meaning of the Sri is glory or prosperity which is the name of the Goddess Lakshmi and nagar means city. So, the district is called the city of Goddess Lakshmi or city of prosperity. According to the earlier records, the name Srinagar originated by the original Sanskrit name surya-nagar, meaning "City of Sun". In the 12th century, it was the capital of Pravarapura II, known as Pravarapura. The region was also associated with Ashoka and Buddhism. Buddhism had existence till 14th century in this area. After sometime the region was captured by the Mughals. During the rule of Yusuf Shah Chak, he declared it as his capital. Mainly it was Akbar established Mughal rule in Srinagar and Kashmir valley. Then in 1586 Kashmir was added to Kabul Subah until and unless Shah Jahan made it into a separate Kashmir Subah with seat in Srinagar. The downfall of the Mughal empire was started after the death of Aurangzeb in the year 1707. Later came the Durrani Empire which also ruled here for a long period. In 1814, it was annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab. British took over the region with the treaty between them and Sikhs in 1846. After India got its independence, the district has seen many terrorist activities and riots. The district is known for Kashmiri Shawls, Houseboats and Dry Fruits. It is the second most populous district in the Kashmir valley.
Geographically, the district has 1,979 sq km. area and occupies the rank 11th in State and 499th in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 34009'N latitude, 74079'E longitude and 1585 m altitude. In the year of 2019, there was a total 16.04% forest area of total geographical area. it is bounded by Ganderbal District in the North, Pulwama District in the South, Anantnag District in the East and Budgam District in the West. The district is located on the bank of Jhelam River. The climate of the district can be characterized as humid subtropical climate. It remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 714.4 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-districts, 5 towns and 11 villages. Urdu is its official language. The district came into existence in 3rd century BC with its administrative head quarters located at Srinagar city. It is also the capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total number of 1,67,448 households with the total population of 12,36,829 including of 6,51,124 are males and 5,85,705 are females which is leading it to the rank 2nd in the state and 388th in India. The population density of the district is 625 (persons as per sq km.). The district has a sex ratio of 900 (females as per 1000 males) and child ratio of 865 (females as per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Muslim with 95.19% of the total population. According to 2011 census, the principal languages in the district are Kashmiri with 94.14% and Hindi with 3.01%. The population growth rate in the district during the period 2001 to 2011 was 24.86% including 20.84% were males and 29.66% were females. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 29,186 including 15,411 were males and 13,775 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 7,044 including 3,975 were males and 3,069 were females.
Economically, the district has several small scale industries here such as weaving, embroidery Carpet weaving, making wooden furniture, silver ware and copper ware. Tourism is also a source of income in the district. Wheat, rice and apples are the main agricultural products in the district. The apples of the district are world famous and it exports to the different parts of the world in a huge quantity. The Gross Domestic Product in the district during the period 2005-06 was Rs. 3,87,369 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 2,96,685 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2003-04 was Rs. 18,717 at Current Price and Rs. 8,004 at Constant Prices in the year 1993-1994.
According to 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 69.41% including 76.25% are males and 61.85% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 7,48,584 including 4,31,746 are males and 3,16,838 are females. The name of the famous educational institutes are Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, University of Kashmir, Kashmir Tibbia College Hospital and Research Center, Bibi Halima College of Nursing and Medical Technology, Government Medical College, Kashmir Law College, NIT, College of Nursing and Medical Technology, Government Dental College, Vitasta School of Law, etc.
Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was an Indian statesman. He was also known as "Sher-e-Kashmir" (Lion of Kashmir). He was the founder of the National Conference. He served as the Prime Minister of the state of Jammu & Kashmir thrice. Sadiq Ali was a senior politician, poet, writer and an active environmentalist. He was the member of the Kashmir State Assembly for three times consecutively. He was very close to Sheikh Abdullah. He served as the treasure of the JKNC for 23 years. Tanvir Sadiq was the youngest spokesman of Kashmir National Conference party. He has written a lot in the context of political-social issues and empowerment of Women. Tariq Hameed Karra is the Member of the Parliament to the 16th Lok Sabha from Srinagar. He belongs to People’s Democratic Party.
The district has many famous historical and religious places to visit. These places are Dal Lake, Shalimar Bagh, Nishat Bagh, Chashm-E-Shahi, Dastgir Sahib, Pathar Masjid, Jama Masjid, Shankaracharya Temple, Hazratbal Shrine, Challi Point, Pari Mahal, Nagin Lake, Nehru Garden, Indira Gandhi Memorial Tulip Garden, Sri Pratap Singh Museum, Hari Parbat, Masjid of Akhund Mullah, Kathi Darwaza. The Sher Garhi Palace houses are the administrative buildings from the state government attracts numbers travellers every year. Some another palace of the Maharajas, the Gulab Bhavan, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel. The Shankaracharya Temple, lies on a hill top in the heart of the city and the Kheer Bhawani Temple are notable Hindu temples that allures visitors from different parts of the country. Srinagar is one of the prominent place of Jammu and Kashmir, heaven on earth. The place is surrounded by many beautiful lakes including Dal Lake, well known for its houseboats and also Nigeen Lake. Apart from Dal Lake and Nigeen Lake, there are some lakes too such as Wular Lake, one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia and Manasbal Lake both lie to the north of Srinagar.