Historically, Kulgam lies in Peer Panchal Range. The term Kulgam is a blend of two words one is “Kul” meaning “Whole” and another one is “Gam” meaning “teach righteousness” in Arabic. In the 13th-century famous scholar and poet called Swaleh Reshiit named the place as Shampora which was later changed to the present name Kulgam by Syed Hussain Simnani. The region had been used as a hunting place from the Mughals to Dogra rulers. Legends believe that once Simnani invited Hazrat Amir Kabir Mir Hamdani to Kashmir, with some other poets such as Sheikh Noor-ud-din Noorani and Lal Ded. Then they manifested the composite culture or Kashmiriyat, promoting and encouraging religious and cultural harmony even when viewed as heretics by other Asiatic countries. During the period of Mughal and Dogra rulers, the area was used as a hunting place mainly for Shahanshah Shah Jehan, who built the Chinarbagh and Maharaja Hari Singh, who discovered the virgin potential of sanctuary at the place named Kutbal. Moreover, the district is the birthplace of Sheikh Noor-ud-din Noorani, the founder of the Rishi order and also the forefathers of famous personalities like Allama Iqbal and Jawaharlal Nehru.
Nund Rishi (Sheikh Noor ud-Din Wali or Sheikh Noor ud-Din Nooran or Sheikh ul-Alam or Sahazanand) was a Kashmiri mystic and the patron saint of Kashmir. He founded the Rishi order of saints.
Geographically, the district has a total 1,265 sq km. area and occupies the rank 15th in State and 584th in India on the bases of this size. It lies at 33°65'N latitude, 75°02'E longitude and 1739 m altitude. In the year of 2021, there was a total 30.79% forest area of total geographical area. Kulgam is situated near the Pir Panjal Ranges near the left bank of Veshaw River with a rough, hilly road from Larow, Afghanistan. The Nallah Veshev is broken into a number of channels which provides drinking water and irrigation for huge tracts of the district's land. The climate of the district remains pleasant almost throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1124.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 sub-districts, 7 towns and 226 villages. Urdu is its official language. The district came into existence in the year 2007 with its allotted district code of 15. It has administrative headquarter at Kulgam which is situated at the distance of 68 kms from the state capital.
Demographically, according to the 2011 census, the district has a total 69,203 households with the total population of 4,24,483 out of which 2,17,620 are males and 2,06,863 are females and leads it to the rank 12th in the state and 554th in India. The population density of the district is 1,035 (persons as per sq km). The district has a sex ratio of 951 (females as per 1000 males) and child ratio of 885 (females as per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the main religion in the district is Muslim with 98.49% of the total population. During the period 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was -3.06% including -3.21% were males and -2.9% were females. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Kashmiri at 91.91% and Hindi at 7.30%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 2,370 out of which 1,093 were males and 1,277 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 1,955 out of which 1,183 were males and 772 were females.
Economically, the district is mainly dependent on agriculture. Several small scale industries are available here. Tourism is also a source of income in the district. Horticulture is another man source here. The lower area of the district is known as the ‘Rice Bowl of Kashmir’ as this area of is very fertile for rice cultivation. Upper areas of the district produce the quality apple on a large scale. Other occupations of the natives of the district are live stock and sheep rearing.
Education wise, the according to the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the district is 59.23% including 69.59% are males and 48.49% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 2,09,085 including 1,25,052 are males and 84,033 are females. Some of the main educational institutes of the district are Govt. Unani and Ayurvrdic (ISM) Dispensary, Govt. degree college, Higher secondary schools, Govt Girls Higher secondary school, F.B Institute, Noor Study Circle Hablishi, English Medium Public High School, Kashmir Public School, Sunshine National School, Hanfiya High School, etc. The district has numerous High and higher secondary schools. There are many other important institutes such as Industrial ITI, Beg Complex Hum Shali Bugh Yaripora, Industrial ITI, Khuri Bata-Pora Noorabad Kulgam, Govt. Polytechnic College, Kulgam, Industrial ITI, Chawalgam and Al-Hilal yateem trust, chawalgam.
Nazir Ahmad Laway is representing the state of Jammu & Kashmir in Rajya Sabha. He became the member of Rajya sabha in 2015. He is very close and faithful to the Ex Chief Minister Mufti Mohammad Syed. Currently, he is working for the development of infrastructure at educational institutions and hospitals in the state. He has been working for the return of Kashmiri Pandits.
The district has a number of historical tourist places to visit. These places are Ahrabal Water Fall, Kongwattan and Gurwattan Ahead of Ahrabal, Charenbal and Nandimarg High Land Pastures. The place has various springs namely Kounsernag, Waseknag (Kund), Khee Nag (Khee Jogipora). The district is rich in natural beauty. Aharbal is a hill station. There is a famous waterfall called Aharbal waterfall which is popularly known as Niagara Fall.