Dhanbad district, a part of the North Chotanagpur division is a district of the Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Dhanbad city. Earlier, Dhanbad was a part of the Manbhum district ruled by Mundari or Kolarian races. These races were originated from the wilderness of South undivided Bihar. According to some information available from the report of the travels of Hieun Tsang, who visited this region in the 17th century A.D. As per these reports, there was a powerful kingdom of Sasanka which enclosed the district and its nearby areas. During the period of British Raj, Manbhum was one of the significant districts of the East India. The present district of Dhanbad was originally a part of the Manbhum. Dhanbad was a part of the Manbhum district from 1928 till 1956. Dhanbad was emerged as a separate district on 24th October 1956 on the Recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission vides notification 1911. This whole scenario was possible only under the strong commitment and leadership of a prominent journalist named Mr. Satish Chandra. In the year 2006, Dhanbad celebrated 50 years of being an independent District. Dhanbad was remained as a district of Bihar from 1956 to 14th November, 2000. But currently it is in Jharkhand since after the formation of Jharkhand state on 15th November, 2000.
Zeishan Quadri is an illustrious Indian writer, actor, director and producer who has co-written the screenplay for the Bollywood crime genre film Gangs of Wasseypur was born in the year 1983 at Wasseypur in the Dhanbad district. He was honoured as the Jury member at the 8th Filmsaaz of Aligarh Muslim University. Meenakshi Seshadri, a famous Indian model, film actress and dancer who won the Eve's Weekly Miss India contest in 1981 at age 17 was born on 16th November, 1963 at Dhanbad city.
Geographically, the district lies at 23080'N latitude, 86043'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 232 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 10.47% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,040 sq kms. and it is bounded by Giridih district on the North, West Bengal on the South, Jamtara district on the East and Bokaro district on the West. The Damodar is the most important river of the district. The climate of the district is characterised by general dryness. It remains extremely hot during the summers and fairly cold during the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 939.4 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 9 blocks namely Tundi, Purbi Tundi, Topchanchi, Baghmara, Govindpur, Dhanbad, Baliapur, Jharia and Nirsa. Moreover, it comprises 46 towns and 1,159 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 26,84,487 out of which 14,05,956 are males and 12,78,531 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 909 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 11.99% including 9.93% were males and 14.34% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 80.07% of the total population. The population density in the district is 1,316 (persons per sq. kms.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi, Bengali and Urdu with 62.72%, 17.95% and 8.47%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 52,112 including 29,032 were males and 23,080 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 9,892 including 5,887 were males and 4,005 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. Some of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, wheat, oilseeds, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Industrially, also the district is well developed. The main industrial products produce in its industries are firebricks, glass products, cement, ceramics, iron and steel, engineering products, etc. Some of its main large scale industries are Bharat Coking Coal Limited, Tata Iron and Steel Company, Indian Iron and Steel Company, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. In 2006 the Indian government declared Dhanbad as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2008-2009 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 10,46,144 lakh at current price and Rs. 7,09,393 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2008-2009 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 9,10,985 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,54,190 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the year 2008-09 was Rs. 33,644 at current price and Rs. 24,160 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Indian School of Mines, Birsa Institute of Technology, Guru Nanak College, Law College of Dhanbad, Patliputra Medical College and Hospital, Raja Shiva Prasad College, DAV Public School, Tata D.A.V School, Delhi Public School, Carmel School and many more. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 74.52% including 83.81% are males and 64.29% are females. The literates in the district are 17,22,204 out of which 10,14,950 are males and 7,07,254 are females.
Ram Narayan Sharma or Ram Narain Sharma, a veteran freedom fighter, a trade union leader and a political leader was born on 31st August, 1915 at Dhanbad city. He was an eminent member of the Indian National Congress and served as a member of the 5th Lok Sabha from the Dhanbad lok sabha constituency from 1971 to 1977.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Charak Pathar, a very large ancient boulder of white stone is situated at a beautiful village in Govindpur development block in the district. Even the village derives its name from this stone. Panrra, a historically significant village located at Nirsa-cum-Chirkunda Block in the district is named after the Pandavas of Mahabharata era. Natives of the district believe that the Pandavas spent some period of their exile in hiding at this place. Pandeweshar Mahadev temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva is the identity of this place. Topchanchi, a renowned village situated on the Grand Trunk Road has the Topchanchi Water Reservoir which covers an area of 214 Ac. The Parasnath Hill is also located in the nearby area of this place. It is a perfect a destination for picnic. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Chati Gobindpur, Gopalpur, Meva, Chark-Khurd, Maithon, Panchet, Jamadoba and many more.