Pakur district, a part of the Santhal Pargana division is a district of the Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Pakur town. The history of Pakur district is not clearly available prior to the medieval period. At that time there are mainly two insignificant estates in this region namely Pakur Raj and Maheshpur Raj. During those days when the British conquered the Battle of Plassey then they started their administrative network to rule this region through the Birbhum district. The place of Pakur, an integral part of Santhal Pargana was not immense from patriotic favor and played a vital role in the country's struggle for freedom. After India got its independence, the status of Pakur was uplifted from sub-division to a district in the year 1999 under the notification of state government of Bihar. But in the very beginning it was a sub-division of Santhal Pargana District since 1868 till it was upgraded as district in 1999. When Santhal Pargana was divided into four districts namely Dumka, Deoghar, Godda and Sahibganj, Pakur was tagged with Sahibganj.
Geographically, the district lies at 24063'N latitude and 87085'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 37 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 15.85% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,811 sq. km. and it is bounded by Sahibganj district on the North, Dumka district on the South West, Godda District on the North West and West Bengal on the East and South East. The district has three principal rivers likewise Bansloi, Torai and Brahmani River. The climate of the district generally remains hot dry in the summers, good rainy in the monsoon season and fairly cold in the winters. The actual rainfall in the district was 998.2 mm in the year of 2018-19. The problem of flood is very rare in this area due to its natural drainage system.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 6 blocks namely Pakur, Maheshpur, Hiranpur, Littipara, Amrapara and Pakuria. Moreover, it comprises 4 towns and 1,247 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 9,00,422 including 4,52,661 are males and 4,47,761 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 989 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 28.33% out of which 26.25% were males and 30.50% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 45.55% and 35.87%. The population density in the district is 497 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Santali, Bengali and Hindi with 36.40%, 39.42% and 16.83%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 11,694 including 6,210 were males and 5,484 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 267 including 176 were males and 91 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. The black stone found in the place is world famous. Every day numerous trucks with stone chips are supply to Bangladesh. The district is making the huge chunk of revenue by supplying Black Stone Chips and Coal across India. Some of its population are also engaged in agricultural activities in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, gram, pulses, mustard, jute, sugarcane, onion, potato, etc. It is abundant in mineral resources as well. The prominent minerals available in the district are Coal, China clay, fireclay, quartz, silica sand, glass sand, etc. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Pakur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2008-2009 the Gross Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 2,54,469 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,71,787 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2008-2009 the Net Domestic Product in the district was Rs. 2,13,012 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,53,725 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 26,874 at current price and Rs. 19,394 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are D.A.V. School, Pakur Raj Intermediate School, Bethany Mission School, Harindanga High School, Jidato Girls School, Jidato Girls School, Blue Buds Model School, K.K.M. College, Sandhya College, Bapu Shikshan Sansthan and many more. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 48.82% including 57.06% are males and 40.52% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 3,52,881 out of which 2,06,989 are males and 1,45,892 are females.
Devidhan Besra, a veteran Indian politician and a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party was born at Jonka in the Pakur district. In the 2009 election he was elected to the Lok Sabha from the Rajmahal Lok Sabha constituency of Jharkhand.
The district has several centres of attraction which allure many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. The tourist places of the Pakur District offer excellent tourism options and mesmerising memories to the travellers. Siddhu-Kanhu Park, Devinagar, Hot Spring, Kanchangarah, Nityakali Mandir, Shiv Sheetla Mandir, Mahakal Shakti Pith, Diwan-e-Pir and Dharni-Pahar are the major attractions of this district. People from far off places across the world come and enjoy the beautiful natural sceneries of the district.