Hazaribagh district, a part of the North Chotanagpur division is a district of the Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Hazaribagh city. The term 'Hazaribagh' is derived from two Persian words likewise Hazar meaning 'one thousand' and bagh meaning 'garden'. Therefore, both the terms together means Hazaribagh is 'a city of a thousand gardens'. According to Sir John Houlton, the town got its name from the small villages of Okni and Hazari-these names are mentioned in the old maps as Ocunhazry. The last part of its name i.e. bagh is probably originated from a mango garden which formed a camping ground for troops and travellers. A decaying watch tower is still visible on the Tower Hill, near Silwar meant to guard the military road. The place was ruled by different rulers during different periods of times. During the Muslim rule, the main estates available in the district were Ramgarh, Kunda, Chai and Kharagdiha. After sometime, the British rule was started here and during that period of time, one had to go by train to Giridih and then he had to travel in a vehicle called push-push to Hazaribagh. Hazaribagh as a separate district came into existence in the year 1834. In 2000, Jharkhand was separated from Bihar to become India's 27th state and after that Hazaribagh became a part of the Jharkhand state.
Subodh Ghosh, an eminent Bengali author and journalist with Kolkata-based daily newspaper Ananda Bazar Patrika was born in the year 1909 at Hazaribagh town in the district. He was honoured with the prestigious Filmfare Award for twice for the Best Story, i.e. Bimal Roy's Sujata in 1960 and Gulzar's Ijaazat in 1989. Moreover, he was selected for Bharatya Jnanpith Award in 1977 but he refused to accept it.
Geographically, the district lies at 24000'N latitude and 85037'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 610 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 38.05% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,555 sq kms. and it is bounded by Koderma district on the North, Ranchi district, Ramgarh district and Bokaro district on the South, Giridih district on the East and Chatra district on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Damodar and Barakar. About 45% area of this district is forest area. The forest area of this district is full of medicinal plants and trees. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 984.4 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Hazaribagh and Barhi. Moreover, it comprises 16 sub-districts, 17 towns and 1,308 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 17,34,495 out of which 8,90,881 are males and 8,43,614 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 947 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 20.62% including 23.08% are males and 18.12% are females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 80.56% of the total population. The population density in the district is 488 (persons per sq. kms.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Urdu with 86.75% and 7.73%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 42,284 including 22,717 were males and 19,567 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 4,704 including 2,771 were males and 1,933 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on both the sectors of agriculture and industry. Some of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are rice, paddy, wheat, maize, oilseeds, etc. The district is also rich in mineral resources. Coal is the major mineral available in the district. There are some important coal deposit reserves in the district likewise Charhi, Kuju, Ghato Tand and Barkagaon of North Karanpura Coalfield. Thus, these coal mines are the foremost source of livelihood for the natives of the district. In the year 2006 the Indian government declared Hazaribagh as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2008-2009, the gross domestic product of the district was Rs. 6,67,316 lakh at current price and Rs. 4,69,833 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 5,78,582 lakh at current price and Rs. 4,28,699 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 22,489 at current price and Rs. 16,663 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are K.B. Women’s College, Langata Baba College, P.N.M. College, Patratu Thermal Power Station College, D.A.V. Mahila College, Kalu Ram Modi College, Ram Govind Industrial Science and Technology, Suriyamukhi Dinesh Ayurvedic College, B.B. Amina Women’s College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 69.75% including 80.01% are males and 58.95% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 10,13,249 including 5,96,113 are males and 4,17,136 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Silwar Hill, a beautiful hilly spot located at a distance of five miles from Hazaribag town has a number of old images. A famous ancient temple was built in this place in the year 1953 where idols of Lord Jagannath, Balbhadra and Subhadra were placed. At present the place is named as ‘Jagannath Dham’. Konar, situated in the Hazaribag district across the Konar River is the second of the four multi-purpose dams included in the first phase of the Damodar Valley Project. Narsigathan Temple, a renowned pious place is located 6 kms. away from Hazaribag, on Barkagaon road. The temple has an idol of lord Narsingh (lord Vishnu) and in Garbhagriha is installed a Shiva lingam. The place has some other temples also such as temples of Dashawatar, Surya Dev, Maa Kali and Hanumanji. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Surajkund, Hazaribagh National Park, Rajderwah, Canary Hill, Hazaribagh Lake & Swarna Jayanti cum Entertainment Park and many more.