Ranchi district, a part of the South Chotanagpur division is a district of Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Ranchi city. The current geographical area of the Ranchi district was previously a part of the earlier Lohardaga district during the British Raj. In the year from 1831 to 1832, one of the parts of earlier Lohardagga district was separated from it and got the name, Non-regulation South-West Frontier. In 1899 the name of the Frontier was changed to Ranchi district. Therefore, Ranchi as a separate district came into existence in the year 1899. Moreover, it is also believe that the place got its name from the different kind of bird called Ranchi, generally found in the local mountain temple of the place. The geographical territory of the present the day’s Ranchi district was once under the rule of Hanimukut, a Kshatriya ruler and after the end of his rule, the place immediately came under the direct control of the kings of the Mahabharata era such as Jarasandh, the king of Rajgir. During that era even Lord Krishna was also ruled over the place. Then the Magadha Empire came to this place and exercised its power over the place until the period of Ashoka-the great. Kalinga rulers and the rulers of the Gupta dynasty are believed to have ruled the place for a long period of time. Finally, the British came to India and ruled over it until India got its independence in the year 1947.
Deepika Kumari a prominent Indian athlete who ranked in World No. 5 in the event of Archery and a former world no. one archer was born on 13th June, 1994 at Ranchi city. The Government of India honoured her with the prestigious Arjuna Award in 2012 and Padma Shri Award in 2016. Mahendra Singh Dhoni, one of the most influential Indian cricketers and the current captain of the Indian national cricket team was born on 7th July, 1981 at Ranchi city. The Government of India awarded him Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, for his achievement in sports in 2007-08.
Geographically, the district lies at 23034'N latitude and 85031'E longitude. The altitude of the district is 652 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 22.85% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 5,097 sq. km. and it is bounded by the districts of Ramgarh and Hazaribagh on the north, Khunti and Saraikela Kharsawan on the south, Gumla, Latehar and Lohardagga on the west and Saraikela Kharsawan and Purulia district of West Bengal on the east. The place, Ranchi is popularly known as the "City of Waterfalls" since it has a number of waterfalls likewise Dassam Falls, Hundru Falls, Jonha Falls, Hirni Falls, and Panchghagh Falls. The principal river in the district is Subarnarekha River. The climate of the district came be characterised as humid subtropical climate. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 896.7 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 2 sub-divisions namely Ranchi and Bundu. Moreover, the district comprises 18 sub-districts, 15 towns and 1,311 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 29,14,253 out of which 14,94,937 are males and 14,19,316 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 949 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 24.00% including 22.67% were males and 25.43% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 55.32% and 14.09% of the total population. The population density in the district is 572 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Mundari with 70.02% and 4.70%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 91,259 including 55,510 were males and 35,749 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 18,769 including 10,984 were males and 7,785 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. Most of the population in the district are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. Industrially also the district is well developed. In 2006 the Indian government declared Ranchi as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2008-2009 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 8,87,402 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,67,761 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2008-2009 the net domestic product in the district was Rs. 7,71,672 lakh at current price and Rs. 6,04,126 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 24,529 at current price and Rs. 19,204 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to the Ranchi University. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Birla Institute of Technology (BIT), Institute of Management Studies, National University of Study and Research in Law, National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Central University of Jharkhand, Xavier Institute of Social Service and many more. Furthermore, Ranchi is fortunate enough to have an Indian Institute of Management Ranchi (IIM-R), the eighth Indian Institute of Management established at Ranchi in the year 2010. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 76.06% out of which 84.26% are males and 67.44% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 19,11,433 including 10,85,244 are males and 8,26,189 are females.
Kariya Munda, an eminent Indian politician and the former Deputy Speaker of the 15th Lok Sabha was born on born 20th April, 1936 at Anigara village in the Ranchi district. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Rock garden, located at a distance of 4 km. from Ranchi town is carved out of the rocks of Gonda Hill. Its design is also resembles to that of the rock garden of Jaipur. At the bottom of the Hill thare is a beautiful dam called Kanke Dam. Hundru Falls, situated 45 km. from Ranchi on Ranchi-Purulia Road offers mesmerising natural scenery to its visitors. The Subarnarekha River falls in this place from a height of 320 feet. It is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. Jonha Falls popularly known as Gautamdhara is situated around 40 km. from Ranchi. The river Kanchi flows nearby. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Panchghagh Falls, Dassam Falls, Hirni Falls, Nakshatra Van, Jharkhand War Memorial, Jagannathpur Temple and many more.