Purbi Singhbhum, a part of the Kolhan division is a district of Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Jamshedpur city. Purbi Singhbhum district, situated at the southeast part of the Jharkhand state was created after separating nine blocks from the earlier Singhbhum on 16th January, 1990. From the industrial growth and mining quarrying point of view this district has leading position in Jharkhand. Prior to India got its independence, the whole region of the district was under the previous Manbhum district and previous Dhalbhum estate. After independence it became a part of the greater Singhbhum. It is a part of the Chhotanagpur plateau. The Dalma range in the district spreads from its west to east covered by thick forest.
Geographically, the district lies at 22°67'N latitude, 86°34'E longitude and 103 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 30.30% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,562 sq. km. and it is bounded by Seraikela Kharsawan district on the North West, West Bengal on the South East, East and North East and Orissa on the West and South West. There is a principal river in the district named, Subernarekha river which flows in the direction from west to south-east. The climate of the district is characterised as temperate in nature. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 587.0 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 11 blocks namely Golmuri cum Jugsalai, Potka, Patamda, Boram, Ghatshila, Musabani, Dumaria, Gudabandha, Dhalbhumgarh, Baharagora and Chakulia. Moreover, it comprises 15 towns and 1,748 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 22,93,919 including 11,76,902 are males and 11,17,017 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 949 (females for 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 15.68% out of which 14.55% were males and 16.90% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 67.58%. The population density in the district is 644 (persons per sq. km.). As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Bengali, Hindi and Santali with 34.42%, 25.69% and 15.92%. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 40,640 including 21,591 were males and 19,049 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 11,205 including 6,909 were males and 4,296 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on industries. At present East Singhbhum district is occupying a top position in the field of mining and other industrial activities in the state of Jharkhand. Jamshedpur, the headquarters city of the district is also a leading industrial city of India. There is an old Copper Refinery of Hindustan Copper Limited, located at Ghatsila. The Singhbhum Shear Zone and Dhanjauri ranges in the district are most prominent mines of copper and uranium. Some of its other notable copper mines are Banalopa, Badia, Pathargora, Dhobni, Kendadih, Rakha and Surda. On other hand some other significant uranium mines are Jadugora, Narwapahar, Bhatin, Turamdih and Baghjanta. Chakulia an important town located in the south eastern portion of the district is famous for its mills of rice and oil, factories of washing soap and number of bamboo produced here. In the year 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared East Singhbhum as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2008-2009 gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 7,94,040 lakh at current price and Rs. 5,81,623 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. In the year 2008-2009 net domestic product in the district was Rs. 6,84,224 lakh at current price and Rs. 5,25,826 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 30,546 at current price and Rs. 23,474 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are A.B.M. College, A.J.K. College, Karim City College, National Institute of Technology, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 75.49% including 83.75% are males and 66.81% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 15,07,699 out of which 8,56,526 are males and 6,51,173 are females.
Suman Mahato, a veteran Indian politician and a member of the 14th Lok Sabha was born on 4th December, 1964 at Jamshedpur city in the East Singhbhum district. She is a member of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) political party.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Harina Shiva Temple, a place located at a distance of 29 kms from the Potka Block Headquarter is an important Lord Shiva Linga. The Linga is worshipped on the last day of the month of Jyestha. Pilgrims from far off places come to this sacred place on the occasion of a fair is held which lasts for three days. Rankini Temple, situated in the Bansila Gram Panchayat of Potka block is also popularly known as Kapadgadhi Ghat. Every year a huge number of devotees come to this temple in order to offer their prayers. Jubilee Park, a beautiful park with a circular lake known as the Bagkudar Lake is located at the place, Jamshedpur. The park covers an area of 500 acres approx with the landscape of Dalma Hills to the north and the view of the Steel Works to the south. It is a perfect destination for nature’s lovers. Some other notable places of interest in the district are TATA Zoological Park, Dimna Lake, Budha-Bidhi Hill, Gotashila Mountain, Burudih Lake, Sidheswar Temple and Zaher Sthan, Panch Pandava, Bhuwaneswari Temple and many more.
Priyanka Chopra, an eminent Indian actress, singer, producer and philanthropist, and the winner of the Miss World pageant of 2000 was born on 18th July, 1982 at Jamshedpur in the district. She has received numerous awards, including a National Film Award and five Filmfare Awards. Moreover, the Government of India honoured her with the prestigious Padma Shri Award, the fourth highest civilian award in the year 2016. The same year, Time announced her as one of the "100 most influential people in the world". Premlata Agarwal, an illustrious Indian mountain climber and named as the oldest Indian woman to have scaled the world's tallest peak, Mount Everest (29,029 ft.), at the age of 48 years on May 20, 2011 was born in the year 1963 at Jharkhand city. She was conferred with the Padma Shri Award by the Government of India in 2013.