Garhwa district, situated on southwest corner of the Palamu division is a district of Jharakhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Garhwa city. Earlier, it was a part of the former Palamu district of the former Garhwa sub-division. Finally, it was emerged as a separate district in the year 1999. As per 2011 census, Garhwa district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.
Geographically, the district lies at 24015'N latitude and 83080'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 197 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 34.00% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,093 sq kms. and it is bounded by Uttar Pradesh and Bihar on the North, Chhattisgarh on the South and West and Palamu district and Latehar district on the East. The principal river that flows through the district is Sone. The climate of the district remains extremely hot in the summers and fairly cold in the winters. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 473.6 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 19 sub-districts, 3 towns and 888 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 13,22,784 out of which 6,83,575 are males and 6,39,209 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 935 (females per 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 27.75% including 27.69% were males and 27.81% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 83.50% of the total population. The population density in the district is 323 (persons per sq kms.). According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 93.49%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 29,827 including 16,888 were males and 12,939 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 2,227 including 1,147 were males and 1,080 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agricultural activities in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, wheat, pulses, gram, peas, pulses, oilseeds, etc. Industrially also the district is well developed. Furthermore, the district is rich in mineral resources as well. Some of the commonly found mineral resources in the district are dolomite, lime stone, coal, graphite, china clay, granite, etc. In the year 2006 the Indian government declared Garhwa district as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2008-2009 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 1,55,707 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,14,576 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 1,35,604 lakh at current price and Rs. 1,04,682 lakh at constant prices in the year 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2008-09 was Rs. 11,595 at current price and Rs. 8,951 at constant prices in the year 1999-2000.
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform from higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Surat Panday Degree College, S.S.J.S. Namdhari College, Gopinath Singh College, Yasin Millat College, Women’s College, Sonbhadra Adarsh Inter College, S.P.D. College, Gunjeshwari Devi Inter College, Tetri Chandravanshi B.Ed College, Dental College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 60.33% including 72.19% are males and 47.58% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 6,53,476 out of which 4,05,161 are males and 2,48,315 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. There is an ancient temple located in the district is dedicated to Goddess Bhagawati. Pilgrims from far off places come to this temple in order to offer their prayers. The place is also full of mesmerising natural sceneries and waterfalls. Sukhaldari Water Fall, Parasdiha fall, Hisatu Falls and Gursandhu Waterfalls are the most attractive waterfalls in the district. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Raja Pahari Natural Beauty, Saruat Pahar, Radha Krishna Mandir of Nagaruntari, Kanjia-Katholic Ashram, Garhdevi Mandir and many more.