Simdega district, a part of the South Chotanagpur division is a district of Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Simdega city. Earlier, the place of Simdega was a part of the Kingdom of Kaisalpur-Birugarh Parganas, ruled by the King Ganga Vamsi of the Gajapati Royal family of the Gajapati Kingdom until the beginning of British Colonial era. Even till today also the Royal family of Gajapati resides at a place called Biru or Birugarh, situated around 11 km. away from Simdega city. Since most of the population in the district are tribal and Odia hence its culture is highly influenced by the culture of Odia. At that time the Odia-Brahmin scholars from Odisha were invited to this region by the Gajapati Kings of Kaisalpur-Birugarh and later these Odia Brahmins were gradually settled in the place. From the very beginning the region is popularly known for its missionaries, schools, convents, hospitals and the lands donated by the former Gajapati Kings and also by its subordinates. During the period of British rule, the Odia Kings ruled this area and even for centuries as well. Simdega, as a separate district came into existence in the map of Jharkhand state on 1st April, 2001. Development of the district, Simdega is pivotal for the development of south Jharkhand.
It is also the soil of a number of famous personalities likewise, Sylvanus Dung Dung (prominent former Hockey player and Olympic gold medallist, 1980 Moscow Olympics), Michael Kindo (eminent former Hockey player and Olympic bronze medallist) and Asunta Lakra (illustrious captain of the Women's Hockey Team of India).
Geographically, the district lies at 22061'N latitude and 84050'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 418 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 32.88% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 3,774 sq. km. and it is bounded by Gumla district on the North, Orissa on the South, Khunti district and West Singhbhum district on the East and Chhattisgarh on the West. The principal rivers in the district are Sankh, Deo, Girwa and Palamara. The climate of the district remains warm and temperate in the summer season. Most of its rainfall occurs in the both monsoon and winter season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1279.7 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 10 blocks namely Bano, Bansjore, Bolba, Jaldega, Kersai, Kolebira, Kurdeg, Pakartanr, Simdega and Thethaitangar. Moreover, it comprises 1 town and 450 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 5,99,578 out of which 3,00,309 are males and 2,99,269 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 997 (females for every 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Christian and Hindu with 51.14% and 33.61% of the total population. The population density in the district is 159 (persons per sq. km.). The major schedule caste population in the district are Bhogta, Ghasi, Bhuiya and Turi with 30.72%, 22.33%, 22.28% and 11.63%. The major schedule tribe population in the district are Munda and Patar with 33.61% and Kharia, Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia and Hill Kharia with 25.42%. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 16.58% out of which 16.86% were males and 16.30% were females. As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi with 58.37%. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 13,917 including 7,275 were males and 6,642 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 1,639 including 1,058 were males and 581 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on agricultural sector and agriculture allied activities like lac production, animal husbandry, etc. Half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural crops in the district are paddy, corn, groundnut, etc. The fertile soil of this region is also favourable for cultivation of various fruits and vegetables. ATMA (Agriculture Technology Management Agency) located in the district gives education on various modern and latest scientific agricultural techniques to its local entrepreneurs. On the other hand, the district is scantily industrialised. In recent times some significant steps have been taken to develop its tourism sector. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Simdega as one of the country's 250 most backward districts and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Most of the colleges in the district are affiliated to Ranchi University. Some of its most recognised schools are St.Mary high School, Holy Spirit School, St.Francis School, St. John's School, Ursuline Convent for Girls, St.Anne School, DAV Public School, Gossner Inter College, Kendriya Vidyalaya, SS School, Navodaya School, Junior Cambridge School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 67.99% out of which 76.08% are males and 59.92% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 3,43,483 including 1,91,991 are males and 1,51,492 are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Kelaghagh dam, the most beautiful dam in the district on Chhinda River is enclosed by some hills which creates eye pleasing scenery. It has the facility of boating through motor-boats and para-sailing. Ramrekha Dham, situated at a charming place on top of a hill is believed to be the place where Lord Rama along with Sita and brother Laxman has visited and has also left his mark (Foot prints). There are some significant archaeological structures in the place are agni kund, charan paduka, sita chulha, gupt ganga etc. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Dangadi, Ketunga Dham, Rajadera, Bhairo Baba Pahari, Bhanwar Pahar, Mazar of Anjan Peer Saheeb, Bandurga and many more.