Seraikela-Kharsawan, a part of the Kolhan division is a district of Jharkhand state with its administrative headquarters located at Seraikela town. Members of the earlier royal family of Seraikella, the Singh Deo family (patrons of the Chau dance) had divided their time between The Palace, Seraikella-833219; a 300-year-old heritage palace and historical landmark and their residences in Odisha, West Bengal and abroad. The last ruler of the Seraikella princely state was HH Raja Aditya Pratap Singh Deo (son of HH Maharaja Udit Narayan Singh Deo). The state of Seraikela was founded by Kumar Bikram Singh I, the third Maharaja Jagannath Singh in the year 1620, which became a sub-division of the Bihar state after Indian got its independence. After sometime, Seraikela became the "Mecca" for connoisseurs of music and dance. The famous dance form, Chhau is originated from this place. The district is not only rich in cultural heritage but also in the deposits of minerals like kyanite, asbestos, quartz, etc. Seraikela-Kharsawan as a separate district came into existence in the map of Jharkhand on 1st April, 2001. At present, the district is a part of the Red Corridor.
Geographically, the district lies at 22°75'N latitude and 85°87'E longitude. The altitude in the district is 226 m. In the year 2019, there was a total 21.60% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,657 sq. km. and it is bounded by Ranchi district on the North West, West Bengal on the North East, Orissa on the South, East Singhbhum district on the South East and West Singhbhum district on the South West. Most its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1138.5 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 09 blocks namely Seraikela, Kharsawan, Gamharia, Kuchai, Ichagarh, Nimdih, Chandil, Rajnagar and Kukru. Moreover, it comprises 7 towns and 1,184 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 10,65,056 out of which 5,44,411 are males and 5,20,645 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 956 (females for every 1000 males). As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 66.57% of the total population. The population density in the district is 401 (persons per sq. km.). The major schedule caste population in the district are Bhuiya, Ghasi and Dom, Dhangad with 35.64%, 18.57% and 15.59%. The major schedule tribe population in the district are Santal, Ho, Bhumij and Munda, Patar with 34.66%, 23.79%, 18.14% and 12.01%. In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 25.47% out of which 25.05% were males and 25.91% were females. As per 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Bengali with 44.01%. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 16,615 including 8,756 were males and 7,859 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,463 including 2,279 were males and 1,184 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. Many prominent business families like Choudhary, Sekseria and Sahu has been settled in this place. The Abhijeet Group (Corporate Ispat & Alloys Ltd.) has set up their steel & power plant in a place, 7 km. away from Seraikela town. Jupiter Cement has also set up a Portland cement plant in the nearby area. The Adityapur industrial estate, once popularly known as the largest industrial hub in India is a part of Seraikela district. Some of its population are also engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, maize, mango, guava, jackfruit, brinjal, tomato, cauliflower, etc. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Seraikela Kharsawan as one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640) and currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
The district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its most recognised educational institutions are Girls High School, B.L. Nawetia High School, Varshini High School, Vikramaditya High School, Rajya Samposhit High, Anugraha High School, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 67.7% including 79.03% are males and 55.88% are females. The number of literates in the district is 6,12,993 out of which 3,65,332 are males and 2,47,661 are females.
Sunil Kumar Mahato, a veteran Indian politician and a member of the 14th Lok Sabha was born on 11th January, 1966 at Chota Gamharia village in the Seraikela Kharsawan district. He was a member of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) political party. He was assassinated by some suspected Maoist rebels near Ghatsila in the East Singhbhum district while attending a local football match organised on 4th March, 2007 on the occasion of Holi.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. The three blocks of the district namely Seraikela, Chandil and Kharsawan has some notable places of interest like wise Sri. Ram Baba Ashram, Palna Dam, Subarnarekha Dam, Kali sthan, Shahid Sthal, Akarshani Mela, Karkatta Dam and many more.