Guna district, a part of Gwalior division is a district of Madhya Pradesh state with its administrative headquarters located at Guna town. According to the ancient history of the Guna district, it was a part of the Avanti Kingdom and established by Chand Pradyota Mahesena. Then, Shishunaga expanded the Avanti kingdom by including Guna, as a growing empire of Magadha. In the early period of the 18th century Chanderi was under the Malwa region and the left out portion of Guna became the part of Raghogarh state. After sometime Raghogarh was divided into three different states and among these three states, Garah and Dharnawada states were the two claimants of the Raghogarh family. In 1857 during the period of Sepoy Mutiny, the Guna district was shifted under the rule of Gwalior State with Raghogarh, the mandatory chief. After India got independence in 1947 Guna district was emerged as a part of Madhya Bharat on 28th May, 1948. With the passage of time the Madhya Bharat was merged into the newly formed Madhya Pradesh state in the year 1956 and finally, Guna district became a part of Madhya Pradesh state.
Geographically, the district lies at 24°64'N latitude, 77°31'E longitude and 474 m Altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 20.77% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 6,390 sq km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 21st in the state and 154th in India. It is bounded by Shivpuri district on the North East, Vidisha district on the South East, Rajgarh district on the South West, Ashoknagar district on the East and Jhalawar district and Baran district of Rajasthan on the West and North West. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1876.8 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 7 tehsils namely Guna, Raghogarh, Aron, Kumbhraj, Chanchoda, Bamori and Maksudangarh. There are 2 Lok Sabha seat and 4 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 7 sub-districts, 5 towns and 1,338 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 12,41,519 out of which 6,49,362 are males and 5,92,157 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 912 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 26.97% including 25.51% were males and 28.61% were females. The population density in the district is 194 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 30,833 out of which 16,124 were males and 14,709 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 7,136 out of which 4,325 were males and 2,811 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 93.26% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 99.41%.
The economy of the district is mainly dependent on both the agricultural and industrial sectors. Most of its lands are use for agricultural purposes. Some of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are wheat, jowl, groom, maize, rice, sugarcane, olives, etc. The rich black soil of the district and the adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst its famers help to increase the production of various agricultural items. Industrially and commercially also, the district is quite well developed. Some of its principal industrial units are National Fertilizers Limited, Gas Authority of India Ltd., and Deepak Spinners Ltd. etc. It is one of the 24 most backward districts of Madhya Pradesh state that is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. In the year 2019-20 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 13,93,803 lakhs at current price and Rs. 8,43,820 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 12,85,335 lakh at current price and Rs. 7,57,775 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2019-20 was Rs. 90,702 at current price and Rs. 53,474 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Some of its recognised government educational institutions are Govt College (Aron), Govt Girls College (Chachora), Govt Kasturba Girls College, Govt College (Chahora-Beenaganj), Govt PG College, Govt College (Raghogarh), etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 63.23% including 74.05% are males and 51.36% are females.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Bajrangarh fort, popularly known as Jharkon among its natives was built in the 17th century but lies in a ruin state in present day. The fort comprises a Moti Mahal, Gunnery and Rang Mahal. Jain temple, constructed in the 12th century has a few statues of Jain Tirthankaras which is believed to have been constructed by Jain Saint Pada Shah. Bishbhuji temple, a beautiful temple in the district has a very marvellous deity of Goddess Durga with her twenty hands. Pilgrims from far off places comes to this temple to offer their prayers. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Panchmukhi Hanuman Ashram, Chambal Garden, Maharao Madho Singh Museum, Brijvilas Palace, Chachaura, Kumbhraj, Aron, Bandha, Raghogarh, etc.